Sabtu, 28 Juli 2012

Hunting of flying foxes and perception of disease risk in Indonesian Borneo - 4



  • Mark E. Harrisonab
  • Susan M. Cheynebc
  • Fiteria Darmad
  • Dwi Angan Ribowoe
  • Suwido H. Limind,
  • Matthew J. Struebigfg
  • a Wildlife Research Group, The Anatomy School, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK
  • b Orangutan Tropical Peatland Project, Centre for the International Cooperation in Sustainable Management of Tropical Peatlands, Universitas Palangka Raya, Palangka Raya 73112, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
  • c Wildlife Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU), Department of Zoology, Oxford University, Tubney, Abingdon Road, OX13 5QL, UK
  • d Centre for the International Cooperation in Tropical Peatlands, Universitas Palangka Raya, Palangka Raya 73112, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
  • e Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda 75117, East Kalimantan, Indonesia
  • f Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NR, UK
  • g School of Biological & Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, UK
View full text

Abstract

Widespread hunting of flying foxes has generated concern regarding population declines and the spread of emerging infectious diseases. To investigate the potential impacts of this trade, we conducted questionnaires in 45 settlements across 12 population centres within Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, a region previously identified as a hunting hotspot. By combining results from 63 hunter and 88 vendor interviews, we highlight two population centres (Palangka Raya and Buntok/Tamiang Layang) with higher hunting rates than other areas, which act as flying fox trading hubs. Flying fox populations were perceived to be declining province-wide: declines in captures and sales were reported by 81% of hunters and 60% of market vendors, who also reported availability as the key factor underlying temporal variations in trade. There was substantial risk of zoonotic disease transmission between bats, hunters and traders: the vast majority of respondents were unaware that flying foxes carry potentially fatal viruses, and so few people protected themselves from physical contact. Moreover, both hunters and vendors were frequently bitten and the majority of bites drew blood. Most hunters (58%) also reported unintentional by-catches that included keystone bird species and slow lorises. The scale of hunting over Central Kalimantan represents a serious threat to the long-term viability of flying fox populations (and potentially those of other species), and could have serious public health implications. Reducing or eliminating hunting and trade would mitigate the risk of disease transmission, while maintaining the economic and ecosystem benefits that flying foxes provide, in terms of pollination and seed dispersal.

Highlights

► We used questionnaires to reveal impacts of flying fox trade in Indonesian Borneo. ► Flying fox populations were perceived to be declining province-wide. ► Hunters and traders highlighted two population centres acting as bat trading hubs. ► There was substantial risk of zoonotic disease transmission between bats, hunters and traders. ► By-catches included keystone bird species and slow lorises.

Keywords

  • Pteropus vampyrus
  • Hunting; 
  • Emerging infectious disease; 
  • Wildlife trade; 
  • Henipavirus
  • Bat

Figures and tables from this article:
Full-size image (76K)
Fig. 1. Map of main survey locations and geographical variation in flying fox trade intensity within Central Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. Abbreviations for place names follow those in Table 1. White circles indicate locations of market surveys and are weighted by trade intensity, based upon these surveys and hunting surveys conducted in villages within a few kilometres of these locations (see Sections  and  for details). The main potential transport routes on roads (red) and rivers (blue) are indicated. Central Kalimantan’s location in Borneo is shown in the inset (international borders emphasised) with dots illustrating Pteropus vampyus locality records updated from Struebig et al. (2010). Areas of peat-swamp forest (green) in both maps follow the SarVision LLC coverage; Langner et al., 2007. (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.).
View Within Article
Full-size image (35K)
Fig. 2. Proportion of hunter income obtained through trading in flying foxes around each large population centre. Hunters were asked to approximate the income into one of five categories, which were assigned scores for analytical purposes (1 = ⩽ 20%; 2 = 21–40%; 3 = 41–60%; 4 = 61–80%; 5 = 81–100%); error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals of the mean scores. Asterisks and lines connecting large population centres indicate significant differences between mean scores (Dunn’s post hoc, α = 0.05). Abbreviations for place names follow those in Table 1.
View Within Article
Full-size image (35K)
Fig. 3. Potential risk from zoonotic disease transmission amongst flying fox hunters and market vendors. Respondents were asked four questions regarding disease risk. Values for “yes” in the question on disease awareness include responses that there was a risk if bats were handled (3% vendors and 0% hunters) and if bitten and the bite drew blood (2% vendors and 3% hunters). Responses for the question on whether bites drew blood are limited to respondents who reported being bitten at least once.

Kamis, 26 Juli 2012

History Of Dayak Maanyan




                       
Maanyan Dayak community is a sub tribe Dayak in Kalimantan, the which has existed since Hundreds of years ago and even believed to have existed since 242 BC According to the research on the Remains of a royal temple area Nansarunai Amuntai - South Kalimantan. What is the relationship with the royal tribe of Dayak Maanyan Sarunai Nan? Yes there is, is a royal kingdom Nansarunai formed by the Dayak tribe Maanyan. At that time the Dayak tribes still Maanyan the which Inhabit the region is now a part of the province of South Kalimantan.



That maybe Maanyan Dayak tribe lived in the year 242 BC already has a structure of great cultures and Kingdoms, but still being simple.


According to the study of history and the Dayak tribe is a glorious maritime Maanyan age of her. And when it was still inhabited the region at the edge of the sea or rivers near the sea. Even According to specified reliefs in Borobudur temple, the Dayak Maanyan ever sail across the ocean toward Madagascar using outrigger Canoes. Wow super once .... and it will not be trusted by you if you see a Dayak tribe Maanyan currently living away from the maritime tribes.



Earlier the collapse of his kingdom began to receive Nansarunai intimidation of the Various Kingdoms That exist when it is like the kingdom of Srivijaya (Sumatra Island) and Majapahit (Java). And finally in 1355 AD, the kingdom of Nan Sarunai fall and subject to the Majapahit empire under the command of master Jatmika. With the fall of Majapahit kingdom Nansarunai hands of government, the new kingdom was formed to replace the previous eksisan kingdom with the royal name of the State Dipa.


The collapse of the kingdom Nansarunai Make Maanyan Scattered Dayak community and left the area has been a Previously That Land of Their Ancestors. The collapse is also well change some of the culture and customs of the Dayak tribe Maanyan, but Basically the culture of his Ancestors nothing has changed. So until now most of the people and society in general do not know the history and background of Dayak Maanyan actually 180 degrees different from the next life a reality today.


Areas That had been the kingdom Nansarunai today is the South Kalimantan region is inhabited by tribes That banjo is derived from the Descendants of the tribe of Dayak tribe Maanyan with Palembang Malay (Srivijaya). Meanwhile, after the events of "Usak Java" or the destruction of the kingdom Nansarunai Maanyan Dayak tribe, run and Inhabit Various areas in Central Kalimantan as Buntok region, Telang, Patai, Ampah, St. Petersburg, Dayu, Tamiang Layang, and as well as Balawa Various other areas.



And what makes this article interesting Nansarunai the kingdom. Well for some reason when it is proven in research That will change history in Indonesia. But the thing is, to date the study was virtually nil no one cares.


from n thanks for info : http://venazhe.blogspot.com/2011/11/dayak-maanyan.html?m=1









Selasa, 24 Juli 2012

Hunting of flying foxes and perception of disease risk in Indonesian Borneo : part - 1


Volume 144, Issue 10, October 2011, Pages 2441–2449


  • Mark E. Harrisonab
  • Susan M. Cheynebc
  • Fiteria Darmad
  • Dwi Angan Ribowoe
  • Suwido H. Limind,
  • Matthew J. StruebigfgCorresponding author contact informationE-mail the corresponding author
  • a Wildlife Research Group, The Anatomy School, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK
  • b Orangutan Tropical Peatland Project, Centre for the International Cooperation in Sustainable Management of Tropical Peatlands, Universitas Palangka Raya, Palangka Raya 73112, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
  • c Wildlife Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU), Department of Zoology, Oxford University, Tubney, Abingdon Road, OX13 5QL, UK
  • d Centre for the International Cooperation in Tropical Peatlands, Universitas Palangka Raya, Palangka Raya 73112, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
  • e Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda 75117, East Kalimantan, Indonesia
  • f Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NR, UK
  • g School of Biological & Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, UK
View full text

Abstract

Widespread hunting of flying foxes has generated concern regarding population declines and the spread of emerging infectious diseases. To investigate the potential impacts of this trade, we conducted questionnaires in 45 settlements across 12 population centres within Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, a region previously identified as a hunting hotspot. By combining results from 63 hunter and 88 vendor interviews, we highlight two population centres (Palangka Raya and Buntok/Tamiang Layang) with higher hunting rates than other areas, which act as flying fox trading hubs. Flying fox populations were perceived to be declining province-wide: declines in captures and sales were reported by 81% of hunters and 60% of market vendors, who also reported availability as the key factor underlying temporal variations in trade. There was substantial risk of zoonotic disease transmission between bats, hunters and traders: the vast majority of respondents were unaware that flying foxes carry potentially fatal viruses, and so few people protected themselves from physical contact. Moreover, both hunters and vendors were frequently bitten and the majority of bites drew blood. Most hunters (58%) also reported unintentional by-catches that included keystone bird species and slow lorises. The scale of hunting over Central Kalimantan represents a serious threat to the long-term viability of flying fox populations (and potentially those of other species), and could have serious public health implications. Reducing or eliminating hunting and trade would mitigate the risk of disease transmission, while maintaining the economic and ecosystem benefits that flying foxes provide, in terms of pollination and seed dispersal.

Highlights

► We used questionnaires to reveal impacts of flying fox trade in Indonesian Borneo. ► Flying fox populations were perceived to be declining province-wide. ► Hunters and traders highlighted two population centres acting as bat trading hubs. ► There was substantial risk of zoonotic disease transmission between bats, hunters and traders. ► By-catches included keystone bird species and slow lorises.

Figures and tables from this article:
Full-size image (76K)
Fig. 1. Map of main survey locations and geographical variation in flying fox trade intensity within Central Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. Abbreviations for place names follow those in Table 1. White circles indicate locations of market surveys and are weighted by trade intensity, based upon these surveys and hunting surveys conducted in villages within a few kilometres of these locations (see Sections  and  for details). The main potential transport routes on roads (red) and rivers (blue) are indicated. Central Kalimantan’s location in Borneo is shown in the inset (international borders emphasised) with dots illustrating Pteropus vampyus locality records updated from Struebig et al. (2010). Areas of peat-swamp forest (green) in both maps follow the SarVision LLC coverage; Langner et al., 2007. (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.).
this data from : 
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320711002485

Senin, 23 Juli 2012

Hunting of flying foxes and perception of disease risk in Indonesian Borneo- New Publications part -2


Hunting of flying foxes and perception of disease risk in Indonesian Borneo- New Publications

Picture

In an important paper in press in Biological Conservation (doi10.1016/jbiocon.2011.06.021), Harrison et al describe how questionnaire surveys of hunters and market vendors in Central Kalimantan revealed decreasing availability of flying foxes, from which it can be inferred that populations are declining. This trend looks likely to continue and Kalimantan, like other parts of the Old World tropics, will lose the ecological services that these bats provide. They are purchased for food and in the mistaken belief that their consumption relieves the symptoms of asthma .Hunters and vendors are frequently bitten and are unaware of the risks of contracting diseases from the bats.

This is the first publication from a series of recent research projects in the Old World tropics investigating hunters of bats and other bushmeat species and their vendors and how the supply chain operates. Another has been completed in Ghana with reference to Eidolon helvum and another nears completion in Madagascar. A study in Brazzaville in which I was involved appeared recently in two adjacent papers in the on-line journal Tropical Conservation Science (see Mbete et al 2011,4:187-202 &203-217). The surprising aspect of this study is the absence of bats from the comprehensive list of bushmeat consumed, despite direct evidence of bat consumption in Congo from others sources. So it looks as if the supply chain for bats differs from that for other kinds of bushmeat

Posted : 15 August 2011, Paul Racey

Jumat, 20 Juli 2012