Sabtu, 07 September 2013

Develop Eco-tourism , Central Kalimantan Private Teams

by ,
Palangkaraya : Central Kalimantan which has an area of ​​157 983 square kilometers is the third largest province in Indonesia.

According to a decree forestry minister : SK 529/Menhut-II/2012 , Palangkaraya city 's thousands province has an area of ​​12,719,707 hectares of forest which consists of nature reserves and conservation areas covering an area of ​​1,630,828 hectares and the area of ​​nature reserves and conservation not natural area of ​​11,088,879 hectares , consisting of protected forest , limited production forest , production forest and convertible production forest .

Central Kalimantan Governor Agustin Teras Narang said the nature and potential of the area of ​​forests , sustainable development of nature and forests of Central Kalimantan requires commitment and togetherness of all parties given the vastness of the area and the many problems faced .

Not only forest products , such as coal mines , gold , iron ore , bouksit , and others are also growing there . Not to mention the considerable potential of palm oil .

" The leaders and policy makers should be able to think hard and sincerity between the utilization of the existing potential and sustainable development , " said the Governor of Central Kalimantan , on Monday ( 27/5 ) .

By cooperating with the private sector , PT Lestari up Forester (Sustainable Management Group ) , Central Kalimantan provincial government plans to develop the concept of a planned eco-tourism similar to the existing National Parks such as Tanjung Puting National Park and Yosemite National Sebangau .

The concept of utilizing the potential of existing natural , but enhanced by building a floating inn , lodging in the tree and provide a tour of the location .

" CK has tremendous natural potential as Tanjung Puting National Park . Everything has to be maintained and used , sold its potential , to change the mindset of a National Park just got it, " he explained .

Related to that , the signing of a cooperation agreement between the Government of the Province of Central Kalimantan PT Lestari up Forester (Sustainable Management Group ) on the construction and development of sustainable tourism and natural forests in Central Kalimantan .

Teras Narang said the signing of the cooperation agreement is part of an effort to develop the potential of nature and forests of Central Kalimantan .

There are efforts such as deforestation and reforestation . But both rated him yet walk in balance .

Use of natural resources in sustainable forest associated with the people who live around the forest as well as their economic conditions .

Chairman PT Lestari up Forester (Sustainable Management Group ) Makes David said the signing of cooperation agreements aim is to make forest management and forest development and sustainable natural and mutually beneficial to exploit the potential that exists without damaging nature .

In addition to the signing of this agreement is also intended to keep abreast of the existence of forests and natural forest .
" Various models for forest development and conservation of natural forests has been done .

But after decades of running , the project only generate reports without generating sustainable development for nature and forests , " he explained .

This Agreement governs the preparation of a master plan to determine how much of the need for the development of nature tourism .

This cooperation also regulate the division of labor between the portion of the provincial government of Central Kalimantan - PT Sustainable Management Group that do not overlap .

by  ( Vera Erwaty Ismainy )

Editor : Asnawi Khaddaf

Selasa, 03 September 2013

ngayau tradition in war banjar

Approximately 152 years ago, on 28 April 1859, riots broke out in Kalimantan greatest, namely Banjar War. One aspect that escaped or at least less exposed to the writings of earlier about the incident is related to the presence of ngayau practices in the war. 

Ngayau or Kayau generally understood to be in the habit of decapitating Borneo indigenous past. But according to Darius Dubud (2004: 45), mangayau not just cut the head without meaning, or some sort of barbaric acts. As the oldest inhabitants of the island of Borneo, the Dayaks had always lived at one with nature. In this encounter with nature they experience the power of God, so that all behavior is directed to maintain balance jamal jalaldan aspects (positive and negative). Any deviant behavior would invite the wrath of God He claimed in the form of natural disasters. From this angle by Dubud, can understand the true meaning of mangayau, that tradition of decapitating it is a ritual to maintain the balance of nature. 

Subjectivity of interpretation 

Darius Dubud above explanation reveals the philosophical and theological value behind tradisingayau. In this case, the victim surely kayauan individuals or groups that are considered sinful by customs, so her 'legitimate' for dikayau. So kayau is a form of sanctions, or some sort of sacrifice for the sake of avoiding the natural balance of the human race from the wrath of God. 

The problem is, when the Dayaks were not in the 'ethnic unity' as it is now, of course there is subjectivity among ethnic subgroups in interpreting who is deviant behavior, and who has the right to punish?As revealed by Helius Sjamsuddin (2001: 50-56) until the 1850s inter-tribal warfare was common in the hinterland of Central Kalimantan, for example, between the Tribe Ngaju afternoon versus-Glum, or between the tribe versus tribe Ngaju Pari. Of the two types of tribal warfare (kayau and Asang), kayau is kind of a small group attack certain parts without prior notice to the enemy to be hunted his head. 

For most civilized nations, such practices are common sense clearly unacceptable. No wonder when in 1802 Dutch politics and the economy contracted by Sultan Banjar (South Kalimantan and Central authorities at that time), their representatives, Commissioner F. van Boeckholtz, of whom require sultan must act decisively "to people in countries who labor Dajak So that the chief was given a sentence cut cut back on the face of the Compagnie lodji .." (National Archives, 1965: 163). 

Moreover, more than half a century later, the Dutch were also targeted kayau in Banjar War. They recorded-at least-is the soldiers and sailors who drowned in war Onrust Barito river in December 1859 by Hero Soerapatti and his followers. According Parelaer (in the Sjamsuddin.Op.Cit: 233), in the invasion of Dayak warriors led Soerapatti cut off the heads of his victims as trophies of victory. 

As bearers of European civilization (Western), can be understood when the Dutch tried to remove the barbaric tradition, as implied in the contents above 1802 contract. Yet another fact Banjar War on opposition leaders presented Idwar Saleh (1991: 26-27, see also Saleh: 1985: 23) may present a startling paradox. 

Here are the facts: 

Once captured in Batu slick ruse, Demat demang Lehman who was hanged in 1864 in Martapura, his head cut off to get the Dutch museum. A year later, Rashid penghoeloe wounded in combat in Lawas Banua fa, head decapitated by someone who also tempted by the Dutch paid. The head of the prince handed to them anyway. Experienced a similar fate Hero Jalil who died in 1861 at the Battle Tundakan in Awayan. Hero's corpse actually had long been buried in secret by his followers.However, after the location is known, the tomb was immediately dismantled and his skull was also taken to museum Netherlands. 

-------> The Elusive, Netherlands who consider themselves civilized it was also 'mangayau' enemies. This fact proves, how thin the difference (even sometimes confused) between the civilized nations that are considered barbaric. 

Western ambiguity

If civilization is defined by the dictionary as an inner cultural progress, then the failure of a civilized nation was not fully measured by the values ​​of civilization itself. In the context of international relations of the past, civilization or savagery is more determined by the party that controls the mass memory system to support printing technology, writing culture, and also supported by, of course, military and economic power. Advantage in that it allows the parties free to define ourselves as a civilized nation, and in the name of civilization was entitled to annex, be aggressive, and colonize other nations are labeled barbaric.

Then east civilize the world also seemed to be an obsession and noble mission of Western nations that period. This is for example reflected in the Dutch military marching song excerpt when they fight Aceh: "Into Aceh Sultan! Nest of all evil ... With the three colors Netherlands 'civilization' grow .. "(Tempo: 2003: 70). But when translated into reality, it was none other civilizations is a fact about all-out exploitation of the colonies for wealth flowed into Europe there.

Ironically the spirit of colonialism as not easily disappear from the face of the earth, even though he was wrapped by methods more subtle, sophisticated, and legitimate. The proof, the world seems helpless with the actions of the United States as the vanguard of Western civilization today. Through the mastery of communication and information systems with all its advanced technologies, America can dictate world opinion about everything, according to his interests. All as 'enchanted' to always be subject to the 'word' of the Adi Power of steps that must be taken as a collective action, in order to create a better world order, democratic, and civilized (in the American version, of course).

Vietnam, Uganda, Cuba, Afghanistan, Iraq (maybe next Iran) is the part of the victim of an American civilization. As in the past, always grinning greedily kavitalis fangs behind the civilizing mission that wrap tightly. Fangs are ready to pounce on, sucking, and eating oil, gas, coal, gold, tin, or other strategic potential in every inch of the earth.

By Because almost all take place under the UN resolution, it was a legitimate military aggression waged for. Diberadabkan world in a way that is not at all civilized. Countries in democratic tyranny right through undemocratic means (but not against the tyrant who became slaves kavitalisnya). Nuclear technology is threatening the world, except in the hands of himself and his allies. Facts arbitrarily distorted rhetoric me.

For a careful study of history, the real ambiguity West has long read. Tata world-even human civilization-is not built based on the facts, but rather is determined by the 'strong man' so that they are always weak in the power. Entering the second decade of the third millennium BC era, human relationship system apparently has not moved away from the 'law of the jungle'. Naturally, when the 'barbaric instincts' appeared and asked, why do the wicked do not 'dikayau' alone? In order to balance the universe re-created? Order no longer a humanitarian disaster struck?

Of course this is just a utopian instinct amid helplessness third world. Moreover affairs kayau-mangayau long extinct and living the story.


* This paper was published in the Daily Edition * RADAR BANJARMASIN Monday, May 7, 2007

* I am very grateful if there is a friend who re posting this article as my previous post "National Geger for Local Performing (Speech Sukarno in Small Town)" via personal blogs or other media. But this time please include the author's name, so that we avoid plagiarism practices that clearly violate the intellectual ethics. Thank you. Greetings.

Senin, 02 September 2013

Tradisi Ngayau Dalam Perang Banjar*

by Norpikriadi 

Kurang lebih 152 tahun lalu, tepatnya pada 28 April 1859, pecah huru-hara terbesar di Kalimantan, yaitu Perang Banjar. Satu aspek yang luput atau minimal kurang terekspos pada tulisan-tulisan terdahulu tentang peristiwa tersebut adalah berkaitan dengan terdapatnya praktik ngayau dalam perang tersebut.

Ngayau atau Kayau umumnya dipahami sebagai kebiasaan memenggal kepala di kalangan pribumi Kalimantan tempo dulu. Tapi menurut Darius Dubud (2004: 45),mangayau bukanlah sekedar potong kepala tanpa makna, atau semacam tindakan barbar. Sebagai penghuni tertua Pulau Kalimantan, orang Dayak sejak dulu hidup menyatu dengan alam. Dalam perjumpaannya dengan alam mereka mengalami kuasa Tuhan, sehingga seluruh perilaku diarahkan untuk menjaga keseimbangan aspek jalaldan jamal (positif dan negatif). Setiap perilaku menyimpang akan mengundang kemarahan Tuhan yang dinyatakanNya dalam bentuk bencana alam. Dari sudut inilah menurut Dubud, bisa dipahami makna sebenarnya dari mangayau, bahwa tradisi memenggal kepala itu adalah suatu ritus untuk memelihara keseimbangan alam.

Subjektifitas Penafsiran
Penjelasan Darius Dubud di atas menyingkap nilai filosofis dan teologis di balik tradisingayau. Dalam hal ini, korban kayauan tentulah individu atau kelompok yang dianggap berdosa secara adat, sehingga kepadanya ‘sah’ untuk dikayau. Jadi kayau adalah sebuah bentuk sanksi, atau semacam tumbal keseimbangan alam demi terhindarnya umat manusia dari murka Tuhan.
Persoalannya, ketika orang Dayak belum berada dalam ‘kesatuan etnis’ seperti sekarang, tentu terdapat subjektifitas di antara sub-sub kelompok suku dalam menafsirkan siapa yang berperilaku menyimpang, dan siapa yang berhak menghukum? Sebagaimana yang diungkap Helius Sjamsuddin (2001: 50-56) hingga tahun 1850-an perang antar suku masih kerap terjadi di pedalaman Kalteng, misalnya antara Suku Ngaju versus Siang-Murung, atau antara Suku Ngaju versus Suku Pari. Dari dua jenis perang suku (kayau dan asang), kayau adalah jenis serangan dari sekelompok kecil suku tertentu tanpa pemberitahuan terlebih dahulu kepada pihak musuh yang akan diburu kepalanya.

Bagi kebanyakan bangsa beradab, praktik semacam itu jelas sukar diterima akal sehat. Tidak heran ketika Belanda pada tahun 1802 menjalin kontrak politik dan ekonomi dengan Sultan Banjar (penguasa Kalimantan Selatan dan Tengah waktu itu), wakil mereka, Komisaris F. van Boeckholtz, di antaranya mensyaratkan sultan harus bertindak tegas: “kepada orang di negeri-negeri Dajak jang kerdja itu potong kepala supaja dikasih hukuman potong kembali di muka lodji kompeni..”(Arsip Nasional RI, 1965: 163).
Apalagi kurang lebih setengah abad kemudian, orang-orang Belanda juga menjadi sasaran kayau dalam Perang Banjar. Mereka–setidaknya yang tercatat–adalah para serdadu dan awak kapal perang Onrust yang ditenggelamkan di hulu sungai Barito pada Desember 1859 oleh Tumenggung Surapati dan pengikutnya. Menurut Parelaer (di dalam Sjamsuddin.Op.Cit:233), dalam serbuan itu prajurit-prajurit Dayak yang dipimpin Surapati memenggal kepala-kepala korbannya sebagai piala kemenangan.
Sebagai pengusung peradaban Eropa (Barat), dapat dipahami apabila Belanda berupaya menghapus tradisi barbar tersebut, sebagaimana yang tersirat pada isi Kontrak 1802 di atas. Namun fakta lain Perang Banjar tentang para pemimpin perlawanan yang dikemukakan Idwar Saleh (1991: 26-27, lihat juga Saleh: 1985: 23) barangkali menyajikan sebuah paradoks yang mencengangkan. Berikut fakta-faktanya:
Setelah ditangkap secara tipu muslihat di Batu licin, Demang Lehman yang dihukum gantung pada 1864 di Martapura, kepalanya dipotong untuk masuk museum Belanda. Setahun kemudian, Penghulu Rasyid yang terluka dalam pertempuran di Banua Lawas Kelua, kepalanya juga dipenggal oleh seseorang yang tergiur oleh bayaran Belanda. Kepala sang penghulu diserahkan pula kepada mereka. Nasib serupa dialami Tumenggung Jalil yang gugur pada 1861 dalam Pertempuran Tundakan di Awayan. Mayat tumenggung ini sebetulnya telah lama dikuburkan secara rahasia oleh pengikutnya. Namun setelah lokasinya diketahui, makam itu segera dibongkar dan tengkorak kepalanya juga diambil Belanda untuk dimuseumkan.

Sukar dipahami, Belanda yang menganggap diri beradab itu ternyata juga ‘mangayau’ musuh-musuhnya. Fakta ini membuktikan, betapa tipisnya perbedaan (malah kadang tertukar) antara bangsa beradab dengan yang dianggap biadab.

Ambiguitas Barat
Bila peradaban oleh kamus diartikan sebagai kemajuan budaya batin, maka beradab tidaknya suatu bangsa ternyata tidak sepenuhnya diukur berdasarkan nilai-nilai peradaban itu sendiri. Dalam konteks hubungan internasional tempo dulu, keberadaban atau kebiadaban lebih ditentukan oleh pihak yang menguasai sistem memori massa dengan dukungan teknologi cetak, budaya tulis, serta ditopang pula oleh–tentu saja–kekuatan militer dan ekonomi. Keunggulan dalam hal ini memungkinkan suatu pihak leluasa mendefinisikan diri sebagai bangsa beradab, lalu atas nama peradaban merasa berhak untuk mencaplok, mengagresi, dan mengkoloni bangsa lain yang dicap biadab.

Maka memberadabkan dunia timur pun seakan menjadi obsesi dan misi mulia bangsa-bangsa Barat masa itu. Ini misalnya tecermin dari kutipan lagu mars militer Belanda ketika mereka memerangai Aceh: “Ke Aceh Keraton! Sarang segala kejahatan… Dengan sang tiga warna Belanda’ peradaban’ tumbuh..” (Tempo: 2003: 70). Namun ketika diterjemahkan ke dalam realitas, pemberadaban itu tak lain adalah sebuah fakta tentang eksploitasi habis-habisan kekayaan negeri jajahan untuk dialirkan ke Eropa sana.

Ironisnya spirit kolonialisme ini seperti tak mudah pupus dari muka bumi, meski kini ia terbungkus lewat metode yang lebih halus, canggih, dan legitimate. Buktinya, masyarakat dunia seakan tak berdaya dengan sepak terjang Amerika Serikat sebagai garda depan peradaban Barat saat ini. Melalui penguasaan sistem komunikasi dan informasi dengan segala teknologi canggihnya, Amerika sanggup mendiktekan opini dunia tentang segala sesuatu, sesuai dengan kepentingannya. Semua seolah ‘tersihir’ untuk selalu tunduk pada ‘titah’ sang Adi Daya tentang langkah yang harus ditempuh sebagai tindakan bersama, demi terwujudnya tatanan dunia yang lebih baik, demokratis, dan beradab (dalam versi Amerika, tentu).

Vietnam, Uganda, Kuba, Afganistan, Irak (mungkin berikutnya Iran) adalah bagian dari korban pemberadaban ala Amerika. Seperti di masa lalu, taring kavitalis selalu menyeringai rakus di balik misi pemberadaban yang rapat membungkusnya. Taring yang siap menerkam, menghisap, dan melahap minyak, gas, batubara, emas, timah, atau potensi strategis lain di setiap jengkal muka bumi.

Oleh Karena hampir semua berlangsung di bawah resolusi PBB, maka agresi militer pun menjadi sah untuk dilancarkan. Dunia diberadabkan dengan cara yang sama sekali tidak beradab. Negara-negara tirani didemokrasikan lewat cara yang tidak demokratis (tetapi tidak terhadap tiran yang menjadi budak kavitalisnya). Teknologi Nuklir dinilai mengancam dunia, kecuali berada di tangan sendiri dan sekutunya. Fakta-fakta diputarbalikkan lewat retorika semau gue.

Bagi yang cermat mempelajari sejarah, ambiguitas Barat ini sesungguhnya telah lama terbaca. Tata dunia–bahkan peradaban manusia–memang tidak dibangun berdasarkan fakta-fakta, tetapi lebih ditentukan oleh ‘si kuat’ agar mereka yang lemah senantiasa berada di bawah kuasa. Memasuki dekade kedua dari millenium ketiga tarikh masehi, tata hubungan umat manusia ternyata belum beranjak jauh dari ‘hukum rimba’. Wajar bila ‘naluri barbar’ muncul dan bertanya, kenapa si durjana tidak ‘dikayau’ saja? Agar keseimbangan jagad kembali tercipta? Agar bencana kemanusiaan tak lagi melanda?
Tentu saja naluri ini hanyalah sebuah utopia di tengah ketakberdayaan dunia ketiga. Lagipula urusan kayau-mangayau telah lama punah dan tinggal cerita.


*Tulisan ini sudah publish pada Harian * RADAR BANJARMASIN Edisi Senin 7 Mei 2007
*Saya amat berterimakasih jika ada kawan yang memosting ulang tulisan ini seperti postingan saya terdahulu “Geger Nasional karena Pentas Lokal (Pidato Soekarno di Kota Kecil)” melalui blog-blog pribadi atau media lain. Tapi kali ini tolong cantumkan nama penulisnya, agar kita terhindar dari praktik plagiatisme yang jelas melanggar etika intelektual. Terimakasih. Salam.