Jumat, 30 November 2012

Research: Debunking the Mystery Genetics Borneo Elephant

Borneo elephants in their habitat. Photo: Benoit Goosens

By using the advanced technology of DNA sequencing methodologies to collaborate with Malaysia Sabah Wildlife Department, Rachel O'Neill Laboratories at the University of Connecticut and a private company called Floragenex, researchers led by Lounes Chikhi been able to identify genetic markers of Borneo elephants are endangered.

A blood sample testing of endangered species in very little has been demonstrated that the Borneo elephants have very low genetic variability, which may affect their ability to survive in their habitats are threatened.

For researchers, studying the variability of endangered species has become an increasingly important requirement for conservation and monitoring in the future. So far, these efforts are constrained from the difficulty of observing and taking genetic samples from endangered species are very difficult to find. This limiting factor in the end result in limited genetic diversity of endangered species information that can be learned.

Until now, the process to find a genetic marker that is time consuming and requires no small cost. This hitch also makes the process of collecting genetic data from species threatened with extinction is difficult to implement.

However, recently, a group of researchers led by Lounes Chikhi, from the Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia (IGC) and the CNRS of Toulouse, France, has managed to change the difficulty when looking for the genetic diversity of Borneo elephant. The results of the study the researchers, such as those recently published in the journal PLoS ONE, not only contributing to the Borneo elephant conservation efforts, but also opened up the discourse to the conservation of other endangered species.

Reeta Sharma, a member of the research team from Chikhis Lounes who is doing his Post-doctoral education, for the first time succeeded in identifying the character of the genome, or genetic marker-, - of the Borneo elephant DNA sequences. The researchers used two different DNA pengurut technology that works fast. Previously, this technology has been used for various laboratory species such as fruit flies and mice, but the difference is now used to study endangered species.

Until now, to find out whether this species still contain significant genetic diversity, it is necessary to look at the broader genomic region using classical genetic methodologies, or the use of genetic markers that have been made for others at various levels of success standard. However, this approach is not sustainable for endangered species, whose numbers continue to shrink over time. The only studies that have been conducted on Borneo elephant is using genetic markers with other Asian elephants and barely found genetic diversity.

DNA analysis conducted by researchers generated from blood samples collected from seven elephants from Borneo Lok Kawi Wildlife Park (Sabah, Malaysia) and from an elephant named Chendra, which is the star of the Oregon Zoo in Portland, USA.

The research team believes that this method of DNA sequencing or sequencing can be used for other genetic typing of biological samples, such as hair or dirt, and is easier to get it from the wildlife, although blood or tissue samples are still needed to identify markers in the first stage.

Reeta Sharma, one of the authors of the study said: "The methodology used to identify genetic markers for Borneo elephants may be used in future studies on the genetic variability of other species or populations at risk of extinction."

Borneo elephants

Borneo elephants (Elephas maximus borneensis) is a unique species, and is a sub-species of the Asian elephant, with differences in morphology and behavior. In general, they are smaller or dwarf in comparison of other elephants, the tusks are straight and long tail. Currently Borneo elephants is estimated at only 2,000 left in the wild, and only in the northern part of the island of Borneo. Is still a mystery how they could evolve into a very different shape this time and why they were separated from the distribution of elephants.

The origin of Borneo elephants which have long caused controversy discussed. The only study done on the basis of genetic data have concluded that they had been present in Borneo for more than 300,000 years ago. This theory does not satisfy all of the researchers due to the lack of fossil elephants in Borneo to support it. Another theory is that the Javanese sultan sent Javan elephants as gifts to the Sultan of Sulu, who will introduce them to Borneo.

Borneo elephants live in an environment where their natural habitat is lost quickly, because oil palm plantations and their populations are isolated from each other. Having access to the variable genetic markers will be important to identify an isolated population in the context of their population monitoring purposes in the future.

Despite that they are one of the main species a priority in elephant conservation in Asia, up to now there are only very limited tools to study the genetic variability of this species, and none of them created specifically to study these creatures.

Lounes Chikhi suggested: "The new genetic Bookmarks we found it also allows us to unravel the mystery of the origins of elephants in Borneo, and may reconstruct part of their demographic history. It's very exciting. "

Sources: :http://www.mongabay.co.id/2012/11/23/penelitian-membongkar-misteri-genetika-gajah-kalimantan/#ixzz2DP9n7iaH

Kamis, 29 November 2012

Barbourula kalimantanensis (Borneo Stream Frog)

Barbourula kalimantanensis is the sole representative of the family Bombinatoridae on the island of Borneo. The species was described only in 1978 by Alexander; and until recently was known from only two specimens. A second species, B. busuangensis, is known from the Palawan group of islands of the Philippines.

The rare images of a living specimens on this web page were kindly Donated and are © by Dr. Tan Heok Hui of the Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, Singapore. These were taken on a recent scientific expedition to Borneo.

Barbourula kalimantanensis is strange-looking: it belongs to an archaic family of frogs with many primitive character states in their anatomy, but on the other hand, shows extensive adaptations for an aquatic mode of life in streams.

The reproductive mode and most aspects of its ecology and physiology REMAIN unknown. It is reported to be the only frog species in the world that lacks lungs.

Size of adults: approx. 70 mm

Sabtu, 24 November 2012

Tigers Dahan (Neofelis diardi borneensis)

Zackie Son Commander Hamandit SAVE OUR BORNEO clouded leopard, Kalteng

Ian Apokayan: Well it ... :)

Proven again .. khasus a tailed beast, the leopard (Panthera pardus), is one of the four big cats. This animal is also known as Tiger Dahan.
Tiger Dahan.

These animals eventually 'go down the mountain' entry into human settlements in Kuningan area, which in this area there is little forest / wilderness at the foot of the mountain Ceremei, Brass.

If there is anything like this, then whose is it?
Relevant agencies or local community kah?

Leopard (Panthera pardus) is not like the kind of 'out of the forest' because these animals in their natural habitat on a limb / tree with a height of 3 s / d 10 yards and loved to 'play' on the river. Of course the tiger is out of the forest, because the habitat is not making them comfortable again ... sorry for these animals ..

Will this also be done in earth Borneo, even though we were only there in the Tigers Dahan (Neofelis diardi borneensis) that its DNA is different from the other branches of the Tigers on this earth (Neofelis Nebolusa)?

Zackie Son Commander Hamandit SAVE OUR BORNEO clouded leopard, Kalteng

Zackie Son Commander Hamandit SAVE OUR BORNEO clouded leopard, Kalteng

Rabu, 14 November 2012

History of the Village tumbles Topus: by Thomas Wanly on 20 September 2012 at 11:01

Tumbang Topus is the northernmost village and the end of the river villages Berito, especially in the district of Central Kalimantan Province Moody highway.

Its presence in the estimate has existed since the 3rd century BC. Tumbang Topus founded by people who in the Punan Dayak believe from keturunanan Nyai Month Jehad.waktu that Dayak people who live at the headwaters of the Barito river sedentary life, split into several tribes that stand on their own. Sometimes mutually hostile to one another. Taste the incendiary spirit of tribal solidarity and strengthened the bond Jereh / ties families. besides Kampung orong Topus, Punan village there used to be in the Bura River Kali Naga, Nahuang River, Orong Tokan, Kalasin / Karamu, Tasang Butung, Takajung, tumbles Molut, River Towoh / Punan Towoh, Cape Maggots, and Tino Lord (letter recognition region indigenous Dayak Punan by Dutch resident Puruk Cahu Muara district Teweh 1927 and 1933) (profile Punan Dayak tribe in Central Kalimantan). within LETTERS DETERMINATION by Assistant Resident DER DOESOENLANDEN DATE 27 JULY 1925 RESIDENT AND VAN DER ZUIDERER OOSTERAFDEELING BORNEO 9 NOVEMBER 1933 DATE OF GOVERNMENT NETHERLANDS INDIES IN DISTRICT BANJARMASIN MOEROENG, Muara Teweh; 1933 for Punan Dayak representation signed by Lawei BIN cocoa

22 JULI 1969, SIDI bindih (sub CHILDREN Punan) MAKING LAND SECURITIES descent Tokan WITH BROAD AREA VILLAGE SQUARE 75 KM, FROM Kalasin - TUJANG, SUB SOURCE BERITO / / the stamped and diregetrasikan by subdistrict ROBOES 25 RUPEES IN PAPER SEALS AND stamp SEAL 5 RUPEES

Topus tumbles, also known as a battle / war between tribes, where until now there is still a path that gives access road by the Dayak tribes Kenyah and Bahau in East Kalimantan / Mahakam river to attack the tribes of Dayak in Central Kalimantan ( rohan *** atoi Tagah Kelong Tuyo, Rohan Bla Soil and Stone Puruk ayou) *** Rohan / road linking the Barito river upstream to the river Mahakam)

War ever undertaken by the Punan Dayak Barito river against Asang HIVAN by Hipui / Dayak Chief Bahau and Kenyah in Mahakam, first in Kampung Orong Tokan (Latap saga brothers) after it Orong maggots among the Punan Dayak Dayak Packed lunch from the ground (Anyang saga, Mrenk of Dayak Punan with Kewo and Lenjong of the Dayak tribe during didesa Tokung Land Spot) who fought for a few days nothing to lose and win, and after that the second tribe adoptive brother and stop the fighting / war to their offspring during kini.dan of the fraternity began Punan know religion is Kaharingan. From the times after the peace agreement that anoi hurung Damang initiated by Stone in the 18th century BC,

In Topus tumbles around the year 1918 AD when it was still happening kayau mangayau / behead people, Tamanggung GEH d ari tumbles Topus lead Punan and Spare afternoon against Asang of interest Bahau in Batu Ayau, because Punan Dayak tribe settlements Towoh / Toho (mentoboh ) at the river mouth is always kayau by Bahau.

After Geh Died circa 1921 event to replace his father Tamanggung GEH Punan Dayak tribal leaders who hold Tamanggung. During the event the Dayak Punan leadership remained in terror by the Dayak Bahau of the Mahakam river, which they secretly kill and cut off the head of the Punan who was hunting and fishing, one by one disappeared Punan not know disappeared.

As a result of the incident the Punan people starve, because everyone was afraid of going out, because kayau headhunting was haunting the villagers.

Finally, note that the mysterious killings carried out by the Dayak Bahau in the Liang Haju, which still resides in the area Topus.Peperangan village ensued and was won by the Punan Dayak tribe, Haju Liang finally occupied by the Dayak Hivui Bahau handed back to Tamanggung Ajang.Dalam handover region they also held a ceremony hakat Pahari / adopted brother (a peace agreement will not do forever childish hostility to his grandson, peace proof Dayak tribe Bahau submit cave swiftlet nests in Liang Haju and a saber, as well as submit event Tamanggung garantung / gong to Bahau Dayak tribe.

Another incident in 2002 Goa swiftlet bird nest in Batu Ayau containing 300 kg, another location where penaggkaran swiftlet's natural Tumbang Topus never trigger back problems that exist between the Dayak in Central Kalimantan with Bahau Dayak people in East Kalimantan, in the handling of such cases occurs conspiracy between government officials and there is no indication of the alleged descendants Tamanggung event sold secretly to people dayak in Mahakam, which at the time the incident occurred which nearly ignited the fire of hostility back where the Punan Dayak villagers Topus particularly wants to harvest in alleged robber / ninja by the police and was arrested and taken to Long Bagun, Ojoh Me and the district court Tenggarong Punan Dayak people of tumbles Topus in defeat for reasons that are unclear which location Swallow's Nest is said to belong to people of East Kalimantan when the reality on the ground is still in area Tumbang Topus or log in Central Kalimantan, until now cave swiftlets have been legally owned by the Dayak tribe East Kalimantan

To set up an event Tamanggung people betang / long house toppled Topus.Betang was set apart as a residence Tamanggung event and his family, and to all the people berpungsi well as the castle from enemy attack. Therefore Betang made around the Kuta / fence or ironwood milestone in the plug around betang, which is famous as Kuta betang Matoi Tacin, unfortunately betang was dismantled by the Dutch, and accused betang as a hiding place against the Dutch orangg .


Tamanggung family event from time to time include:

1. Tamanggung Juk in Kampung Takajung

2. Anyang and Mreng in Cape Maggots

3. Loud Montong in the village Tasang butung

4. Tamanggung Hojung in Bajoit / village Tujang now

5. Tamanggung Sawuh in Kunyi tumbles

6. Laughter in Kampung Pambakal Bantoi New Laas village Barito district Sources


On the river Berito:

1. Kampung tumbles Topus

2. Kampung tumbles Tujang (Ase keluaraga Raba / father IMIS)

3. Kampung Kalasin (families Fortunately Duars / father Imoe)

4. Gulf Kampung Jolo

5. Tumbang Kunyi

6. Village Juking polite

7. Village Tahujan ontu

Mahakam river:

1. Long Bagun village (family Nanyan and Adi)

2. Stone Village Majang (family Bangkak and Stone)

3. Tumbang Ratah / Wood Mas (family Jihat)

4. Village Danum river paroi Ratah (family Takuan)

5. Bua River Village (Ongko Limpak)

6. Village Tukul (Sahrun, Tinus and Numan)

7. Tell Datah village (the father of the family died Managi à 2012)

Sabtu, 10 November 2012

The uniqueness and benefits of beads typical of the Dayak

by Ian Apokayan on October 28, 2012 2:08 pm

The beads are made of stones, bones, grain, and plastic with a variety of shapes, small size coupled with the middle hollowed out for threads to become ornaments to beautify an object or even as a means of beautifying themselves. Especially for the Dayak tribe in Kalimantan (Borneo), the beads have become part of everyday life ranging from clothes to decorate regional specialties and complementary accessories, such as bracelets, necklaces, ornaments in the head and so on. In Borneo, beads very much available even to remote hinterland. In Central Kalimantan, beads are often associated with a variety of beliefs, especially by religious Kaharingan.In general it can be described using the beads in Borneo include the bride jewelry, tools to pay a fine, medium of exchange, a symbol of social status, by the nobility used to buy slaves, embellished tunic and necklace shaman, placed on the lips of the dead as a tomb stock. Beads such agit equator, bead necklace Simbang sambi, sa'sawak beads.But the existence of objects which in English is called "bead" turned out for the largest island of Indonesia in Borneo is not just decoration, but it is widely used for other purposes such as processed as a talisman or a repellent reinforcements. The beads assessed sacred objects to also be a means of ceremonies, medical facilities, provision of death, as a medium of exchange or dowry can even beads symbolize the social status of their owners.

Jewelry beads, was named one of the themes for the craft to be one of the symbols of adhesive to the culture of Borneo, because almost all the symbols Kalimantan always use beads as jewelry. The beads are usually used as a sweetener in traditional dresses, the jewelry lady Dayak tribe, as a wall decoration, pottery decoration development even now beads are also used for handbags, wallet, and cell phone holster or a pencil or pen.The beauty of beads is dependent on the materials used, shapes, dyes and manufacturing techniques. Based on the record, the beads are made of various materials that are widely known such as rocks, glass, ceramics, metals, shells, bone, ivory, wood, sap wood, seeds, beads, and other materials.The beads include the oldest relic, because based beads were found there is made of mixed materials such as those found at Tell Arpachiyah Mesopotamia (4000 BC) made of limestone and beads made of stone relics of Pharaonic dynasty.According to history the oldest beads found in France, at the archaeological site of La Quina about 38,000 BC.While the initial center of the bead-making in Mesopotamia and Egypt around 65,000 BC. While in Indonesia beads supposedly been around since prehistoric times, namely the hunt after the discovery of old beads in a cave in East Java Sampung.

Benefits beads

Based on the record, to understand the purpose and meaning of stones in color beads color beads actually depends Dayak themselves, beads were presented in each of the Dayak traditional ceremony usually colored red, green, yellow, blue and white. Each color has a meaning and a different privilege, because that is in the Dayak community, if the color of the red stone beads then this is a symbol of the meaning of life, if the blue stone beads have meaning across the power source that does not easily fade.If the color yellow symbolizes the meaning of this stone beads depict the grandeur and sacred, and if the color is a green stone beads have meaning and essence of the completeness of the universe, whereas if the color stone beads are white then it symbolizes a meaning picture symbol of the sanctity of one's faith to the creator. In addition to the meaning of the Dayak color stone beads are different to the type of stone beads, origin of materials used is always kornelin, rock crystal, onix, striped agate, chalcedony and amethyst. In view of the Dayak people, stone beads made of amethyst and agate is believed to have magical privileges therein.At the beads agate beads that have a cross image footprint starlings, for example, believed to guarantee the wearer safely to any destination travel a lot so it would make a great souvenir. While the agate beads with red and white line drawings (sardoniks) are believed to make the wearer immune to stone bead bullets.In general, the use of beads made of agate stone can also heal the sick and bring good harvests for farmers. So it is with the use made of amethyst stone beads, this thing is also believed to help cure diseases, detoxifying poisonous due to animal attacks and burns to the wearer.The beads are used as a repellent reinforcements, the owner can avoid interference from evil spirits or beings smooth, used for traditional ceremonies as assessed beads have the power, used for the treatment of beads assessed to repel the forces of evil. Scarcity beads have a high value, so that it will raise the degree or status of the owner, because the beads have the power because it is also used in preparation of death.

Ian Apokayan : Insects in the REAL world's longest

Ian ApokayanInsects in the REAL world's longest and ONLY FOUND THERE KALIMANTAN Island. Rod-shaped insect is defined as the longest insect in the world by a British scientist.
The specimen was found by local residents and examined by Malaysian amateur naturalist Datuk Chan Chew Lun. Unique insect is then given its scientific name: Phobaeticus Chani or Chan's megastick.
Paul Brock of the Natural History Museum in London said that this is the longest insect species discovered so far. The shape resembles a bamboo pencil thin, about 22 inches in length, and body length of about 14 inches.
Is greatness insect? These insects have the ability to camouflage to defend themselves. In addition, he is also going to spray toxic against predators!
Finally, we've got Phobaeticus Chani, the world's largest stick insect. The species an insane measure 1.6 feet long and, as you can see, looks an awful lot like just a regular twig. This particular species was discovered deep in the heart of Borneo, and only three specimens have ever been observed. Still, that's more than enough times for me to advise that, if you ever find yourself in the heart of Borneo, take a good look before picking up any twigs.
These are just a few of the strange and awesome animals that are found in the jungles of Borneo.

Ian Apokayan Insects in the REAL world's longest

Kamis, 01 November 2012

A orangutans are found in a state full of bullet wounds exposed her body in oil palm plantations, Pangkalan Bun, Central Kalimantan. An autopsy conducted Doctors Team Orangutan Foundation UK found a 104 grain bullet in the body of the orang-utan.

Pangkalan Bun - A orangutans

TEMPO.CO, Pangkalan Bun - A orangutans are found in a state full of bullet wounds exposed her body in oil palm plantations, Pangkalan Bun, Central Kalimantan. An autopsy conducted Doctors Team Orangutan Foundation UK found a 104 grain bullet in the body of the orang-utan.

»X-rays done in the head, chest, abdomen, legs and arms," ??said veterinarian from Orangutan Foundation UK, DVM. Zulfiqri, in a press release received by Tempo, Wednesday, October 24, 2012. Orangutans are found by a rescue team SKW II-BKSDA Kalimantan and Orangutan Foundation on October 10, 2012.

According Zulfiqri, from the body of an orangutan, named Aan was found 37 bullets in the head and 67 bullets were scattered over his body. »Several bullets also lodged in vital organs, including in the heart and lungs," he said.

Currently Aan, who is still in intensive care, in critical condition. »Aan likely to die due to severe infections in the head," said Zulfiqri. Shot in the head to make the holes that will be the entrance for various types of disease, including the types of deadly diseases.

The bullet lodged around the eyes and ears make Aan no longer have the ability to see and hear. »His left eye was blind when Aan was taken out of the oil palm plantations," said Zulfiqri.

According to the Liaison Officer Orangutan Foundation UK, Astri Siregar, the team will continue to seek the best way to be able to continue to live Aan. »Operations and treatments for Aan will be pursued to the fullest," said Simpson. When Aan able to survive, will be moved to one of the camp reintroduction in Lamandau River Wildlife Reserve, Central Kalimantan.

Head of Conservation Areas II-Natural Resources Conservation Center of Central Kalimantan (Kalimantan BKSDA SKW-II), Hartono SP deplored the conditions experienced by Aan. He was one of the orangutan species legally protected because it is endangered. »Other relevant Government agencies need to evaluate the provision permitting development outside the forestry sector to keep the balance of nature," said Hartono.
The shooting of orangutans often occurs in oil palm plantations. In January orangutan hunting action revealed by the discovery of the bones of the orangutan. Cases involving oil palm plantations PT Prima and PT Citra conformable Sabhantara Rawi Santosa, PT Khaleda Agroprima Malindo, in East Kutai Police disclosed East Kutai in East Kalimantan.

source: http://id.berita.yahoo.com/104-peluru-bersarang-di-tubuh-orang-utan-122401176.html #