Sabtu, 30 April 2011


By: Arkanudin 

Preliminary Humans are creatures berkebudayaan. With the culture of its people can not only align but also to change their environment for survival. This is because culture is a complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, and any other capabilities and habits acquired human beings as members of society (Garna, 1996:157). Thus it can be understood that with a culture that contains a set of human knowledge can be an alternative to respond to their environment, both physical and social. A set of knowledge acquired by humans is a process of learning from what is seen, touched, felt from the environment, which is then actualized in the form of behavior and inherited from generation to generation. When humans actualize pengelaman behavior based on positive experiences to their environment so people will become wise, in managing environmentally sustainable living systems. The values ​​of wisdom to manage natural resources is very important, because empirically one aspect of the crisis the most worrying phenomenon where the exploitation of natural resources is not done wisely, it will eventually lead to destruction or extinction. One example of traditional wisdom model in forest management is a system of shifting cultivation activities conducted by the Dayaks in Kalimantan. 

Shifting is testament to the traditional wisdom of the Dayak people in managing forest resources Measure (in Widjono, 1995:34), explains that the shifting is one of the principal characteristics of Dayak culture. On this basis that Widjono (1998:77) explicitly states that the Dayaks who can not be doubted kedayakannya farming, because they have been deprived of his ancestral cultural roots. Ave and King (in Arman, 1994:129), suggests that the tradition of farming (siffting cultivation or swidden) Dayak people have done since the time of their ancestors, which is the main livelihood. Sellato (1989) in Soedjito (1999:115), estimated by shifting the Dayak people have started two centuries ago. Even Mering Ngo (1990), mentions a way of life farming in various regions in Borneo has been known for 6,000 years BC. In the context of sound forest resource management of traditional wisdom, basically among the Dayak people have certain ways of treating the forest. According to Bamba (1996:14), Dayak people view nature not as an asset or wealth but rather as a house together. The concept of home with this look in every ceremony that precedes certain activities relating to the use of the forest, where there is always the element of permission or seek permission from the forest dwellers that will be tilled. The sound of certain birds or animals as a means of communication between humans and the natural inhabitants. According to the belief of the Dayaks, when the farming activities, especially in choosing lakosi to be tilled, when come across various kinds of signs, such as certain sounds of birds and animals, it is necessary to the ceremony with mempersembah offerings with the intention of fine spirits have supernatural powers not interfere with their lives either individually or in groups perform. Various beliefs as those described, indicating that the Dayak people have a deep graze on the myth, which is an event that is considered sacred, or events experienced directly by the ancestors, although the timing of events could not be ascertained historically, but the history of the event for Dayak people to function as a norm of life. Such thinking gave birth to their perceptions about the wisdom of a forest resource management (Widjono, 1995: 34). In farming in general Dayak tribe that became the main priorities is not productivity but the diversity of crops grown. This is understandable because the Dayak tribe subsistent. This variety is treated in all types of agricultural enterprises as well as in the rubber plantation business. In the farming activities not only grown rice plants, but also planted various kinds of vegetables that old age is relatively short compared with rice. Besides planting various kinds of vegetables amid the fields, they are also taking the time to plant a variety of fruit trees around the cabin if observed plant species planted include tengkawang, durian, complexioned, jackfruit, rambai, rambutan, coconut, areca nut, banana and others. The trees are also a foreshadowing that the forest is already there who process it and if others want to open fields on the ground, must ask permission to the first open forest. Then after all the phases in farming activities were carried out until after harvest, some of them former field was planted back with rubber trees. While other parts allowed to grow into the forest again with a view, a moment can be reopened into the fields. Traditional wisdom through replanting different types of fruit trees that are useful as well as various types of cash crops on the former fields, according Widjono (1998) has broken the myth about the role of the Dayaks in damaging the environment. According to the Dove (1988); Mubyarto (1991) and Widjono (1996:107), there are three myths that underlie the minds of experts about the Dayak cultivators of this: first the cultivators to own land communally and communally consume the results also and have no motivation to preserve it, the two myths that always assumes that the fields of forest damage and wasted economic value of forests, the third myth assumes that the economic system they are subsistence and regardless of the market economy. Traditionally, systems and patterns of forest resource management in Kalimantan are still to be found, where each has characteristics that may not be duplicated elsewhere, such as in West Kalimantan, we know the existence of forest resources management system called tembawang term, while East Kalimantan is known Simpukng crowd and variety of other simpukng. Forest resources management system by the Dayak are economically proven capable of contributing to family income while conserving forest resources. Various accusations addressed to them as a destroyer of forests is not unreasonable, this is because in using the forest as an area of ​​fields simply rely on the equipment used axes and machetes. In contrast to the concession holders who mobilize many workers and utilizing high technology. Forest management by utilizing high technology to make the concept of farming as a model of wisdom Dayak tribe seems increasingly sidelined and this will only stay a historical story of the Dayaks in managing natural resources.
Cover Traditional wisdom of the Dayaks in megelola forest resources, are khakiki basically stems from the religious system that guides and emulating the Dayak community to always behave in harmony with the dynamics of the universe. Despite what the Dayak people, there is not logical because they still believe that the universe is filled with magic powers, so that in every start any work related to forest use there is always the element of permission or request permission to forest dwellers. But the sociological traditions or customs that people do Dayak is merely an effort to preserve and maintain the environment, so that expectations are created equilibrium further the relationship between humans and the natural environment. Traditional knowledge possessed by the Dayaks, especially in managing forest resources, it needs the attention of various parties to preserve it, because it is traditional values ​​rooted in national culture. 

Arman, Syamsuni. 1989. Switching fields and position In-The Dayak Tribe Culture In West Kalimantan, Pontianak: Papers on Anniversary XXX Give In And Lustrum VI Tanjungpura University.
Bamba, John, 1996. Natural Resource Management: The Dayak And Cultural Challenges In The Face, In Borneo Review, No. 15 V, March-April 1996, Pontianak.
Dove, Michael R. 1988. Shifting in Indonesia: A case study in West Kalimantan, Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University Press.
-------------------. 1994. Preface, Culture and Cultural Resilience Resilience, In: Paul Florus (ed), Culture Dayak, Actualization and Transformation, New York: Scholastic LP3S Widiasarana-IDRD with Indonesia.
Garna, Judistira. K. 1996. Social Sciences, Basic-Concepts-Position, Bandung: Padjadjaran University Graduate Program
Ignatius. 1998. Natural Resource Management in the village Menyumbung (sub tribe Dayak Rio), In, Kristianus Atok, Paul Florus, Agus Tamen (ed), Development, empowerment-Based Natural Resources Management community, Pontianak: PPSDAK Pancur Love.
Mering, Ngo. 1990. This Peladang, in: Prospect No. 3 Year 1, 13 October 1990.
Mudiyono. 1990. Social Change and the Ecology Peladang Switch, Pontiac: In Sound Tanjungpura University alma mater, No. II of V November 1990.
Soedjito, Herwasono. 1999. The Dayak: Peladang Switching and Germplasm Preservation, In Kusnaka Adimihardja (editors), Farmers, Knitting Tradition Era of Globalization, Local Knowledge Systems Pendayaangunaan In Development, London: Home Humanities Press.
Measure, Pridolin. 1994. Meaning of Religion Dar Nature Around The Dayak Culture, In Florus Paul (editor), Culture Dayak, Actualization and transfortasi, Jakarta: Gramedia LP3S Widiasarana-IDRD with Indonesia.
Widjono, Roedy Haryo. 1995. Dayak Benuag Simpakng crowd, A Wisdom of Traditional Forest Resource Management, Pontianak: In Borneo Review, No. 13 of IV, October-December.
------------------------. 1998. The Dayak Staring Tomorrow, New York: Scholastic Widiasarana Indonesia.

Kamis, 28 April 2011

manugal in image

Daily Tabengan, Manugal the traditional way, not a new thing for the people of Central Kalimantan. The tradition of growing rice that is made by using wooden spears as a tool to make holes in the ground that the seed was planted, up to now is still a mainstay.
Although the branches and twigs scattered, Lowis and some family members do not care. He continued to walk, with a slight bend and move backward. The right hand while holding the blade Portugal numbuk ground-pounding, while the left hand insert seeds into the hole. Seeds were then dumped, in the hope of growing faster. Lowis are citizens who live Puruk Cahu farm on the outskirts of the provincial road-Muara Teweh Puruk Cahu Km28. Manugal a habit to plant rice after the burning land. It's already done their ancestors for generations. Lowis said, for inland communities, manugal often done together other planters in a way to help each other in turn. The hope, in order to grow rice quickly completed. Manugal in this mutual help other terms habaring hurung, in Ngaju handep Dayak language. In the area of the garden with an area of about one hectare, the Lowis manugal along with seven members of his family. With the number of people that much, their fastest time-consuming for a week. But, if that manugal numerous or about 20 people, will be completed in just one day. Lowis says, is a type of rice planted paddy village (Unus) mixed grains like seeds of cucumber, and tomato seeds. After the rice is finished ditugal Unus, continued to plant rice or glutinous lakatan in place which has been prepared. In one hectare of land, usually spend paung (seed), rice as much as two cans of the size of 15kg or 10 bushels. Farmers or planters usually estimate the size of the number of seeds that will be used from the land area. In addition, to avoid crop failure, in rural areas are usually already know when to start the burning of the field and when it will start growing rice. "If manugal on month 10 (October), next year should also be the same month," he said. According Lowis, their income is very dependent on the natural conditions. Due to erratic weather conditions lately, it only takes two days to do the burning heat, so the land is not burned completely. Erratic weather will greatly affect the development of rice, since the penugalan until rice begins to mature. "If the rice nice and normal weather, eg rain in three days and three hot, then with a capital of 10 bushels will produce 200 bushels," he explained. Similarly, if the weather is uncertain, the signs of crop failure will appear in the rice. Flowers rice will fall little by little, if rice will cook a lot does not contain. "Another advantage gardening, rarely burn after infestation of pests, diseases only concern is the weather," said Lowis. Other factors that also determine the yield of paddy, if imperfect land burned burned the rice growth is also rather slow. Rice gardens rely on combustion for wood harvested is believed to contain menuyuburkan fertilizer for rice. Lowis said the rice will be harvested after the age of six months, then digetem rice (harvested) using kentu or gentu (traditional knife), while for the cleaning done by memihik (split between rice straw and rice). Then to separate the apis (broken rice) was also done in the traditional way using a fan made of wood. Lowis County Government hopes (Pemkab) Joyless Kingdom provide relief or exemption to citizens who depend living from farming, because it has become a tradition passed down through generations and maintained. Burning of land for gardening does not need to happen arrest by the police, causing fear in the community. "We also ask the law enforcement officers in order to assess carefully what gardening what is not, must not arrested," he added. Bambang Hermanto

Diamond Mountain Cultural Tourism

Eco Tours and Cultural Tourism Diamond Mountain District

Adventure Travel and Culture to the Diamond Mountain District starts from Palangkaraya Jutuh tumbles toward the village on the outskirts of River Rungan that can be achieved with Roads 5 (five) hours away by land transport, the first object that you can enjoy the natural beauty and daily life of people Dayak Ngaju Rungan River through the villages that is passed and see the cascade Gohong Rawai.
Next we will go to the House betang "Toyoi 'in the village on the outskirts of River tumbles Malahoi Bringei founded by Toyoi, here you can see and watch heritage Cultural Art, beauty, splendor and Heritage betang house as evidence of cultural wisdom of the Dayak communities with overnight Home betang.
Next we headed to Batu Tourism Object Upun Batu Suli Village District Tewah with the distance 3 (three) through the land route, in this object we can see the splendor of Batu Suli and Puruk Amang Rawai who stands firmly with the edges keindahanya Kahajan, if you like hiking and tracking you can rise above this tourist attraction to watch the legacy Legend Tamanggung Amang Rawai Manajah Antangvery famous among the people of Lake Kameloh Diamond Mountain, Stone Tingkes etc.
From Batu Tourism Object Adventure Travel trip Suli proceed to Kuala pursued Period 1 (one) hour with four-wheel vehicles, here we can see the beauty of Nature Tourism Object Mahasur Stone Waterfall and Waterfall Bawin Kameloh and Tourism Forest Arboretum
From Kuala Period, the capital of Gunung Mas Regency we are going back to Palangkaraya taken within 5 (five) hours of travel through the land route
In the month of February-March at the peak of fruit season, visitors can enjoy various kinds of fruit typical of Central Kalimantan, along the travel route
Net Price Per Person / Domestic In
2 People3-4 Persons5-7 People
Rp. 2,500,000, -/OrangRp. 2.3 million, -/OrangRp. 2.25 million, -/Orang
Prices include: Ground Transportation and Meals on the Road to the Diamond Mountain District PP, Meals and Lodging in betang Toyoi (1 Night), 1 night in Kuala Period, Mineral Water, and Services Guide.Not including tips and Donation (Personal Donation) Traditional Culture and Performance Art.
"Explore the Wisdom of Art, Culture and Natural Beauty Land Dayak,
Earth Tambun Bungai Central Kalimantan "

Rabu, 27 April 2011


 Friday, January 15, 2010 : Share this history on: (Marko Mahin)

This is the mythical mountain Ot Danum people. They named this place as Tantan Uhing Doung where the heroes declare holy intention to restore self-esteem that has been deprived of the wicked.
Direct chilling goosebumps when retracing Stone Ayau. As the son of the Dayak, the author knows exactly Stone is the place where the head-hunters Kayau expressed his determination to melpenuliskan headhunting. Revenge, hatred, and sin pengpenulisan shed in this place. "If you arrive at Batu Ayau melpenuliskan do not forget a little ritual," according to a message tetuha village before we left. The message continues to resonate as we spend the night in Takolok Ladder or Head of Household. Honest, direct anxiety attack because the author does not have to bring anything. "It does not have a sacrificial animal, sepucuk cigarettes also may," explains Amai Ica, participating Indigenous Tetuha take us. The explanation is reassuring thought, so I can sleep soundly that night. 

Under a yellow sun in the morning, with the reverence one clove cigarettes placed on the altar that had been prepared. Full of respect for the ritual re-enacting the author of my ancestors. There, the authors introduce ourselves as one of the descendants of the first time in Batu Ayau menjejakan foot. Then notify the intention and purpose of Compass Expedition Team through the place.
Line-Kayau Asang 

With steep walls of the upright, Stone Ayau do look creepy. In breast Sacred Literature Tatum or Ot Danum people, this place is called Tantan Uhing Uhing Doung Doung or Peak. In ancient times, in the 1652 meter high places is the man Dayak initiated. A young Dayak will not be dipenulisi as a grown man that never crossed this place. When a woman proposes marriage, then gently be asked "Do you ever cross the Stone Ayau?" The question is only allusion to know whether the man was never wander far from the village of birth to look for life experience. Also to find out whether he was a man suffering from a strong resilient when exploring the woods, wade the river and up the hill. More specifically, to find out if he had ever participated mengayau eastward is by passing the Stone Ayau. When Asang-kayau or still berlpenulis headhunting in the interior of Borneo, Muller is the boundary wall of separation between the tribes who fought each other. Asang different from kayau. Asang dilpenuliskan in large groups and attack dilpenuliskan with prior notice. Asang more of an expedition of the cutter head. While kayau dilpenuliskan by small groups, 3, 5, 7 or 9 people and dilpenuliskan by without notice. In breast Tatum told that in order to avoid savage Asang of the Mahakam river, Ot Danum people who live in Joloi River, the son of the Barito river upstream, the river must melpenuliskan Kahayan evacuation.
Expedition Team Rambang
"Back in the days Rambang, Tambun, Bungai and exhausted, on the catwalk ulin Stone Ayau there we called Pantar Rambang", explains Topus tumbles society, when asked about the Stone Ayau.
According to Tatum breasts, Rambang, Tambun, Bungai and exhausted is the Ot Danum hero figure. They are 4 young men who committed melpenuliskan baleh-bunu or cruel vengeance upon perlpenulisan Dayak Mahakam people who have made their ancestors were forcibly displaced to Kahayan. By bringing and 30 other people they melpenuliskan Asang the Mahakam river.
After tens of days exploring the jungle, they arrived at the foot of Mount Uhing Doung. To reach the top they make a ladder and ropes and hooks. They had to cut trees and collect rattan, then climb and binding. Through the steps and links that they arrived at Tantan Uhing Doung. From there they planned to march eastward toward the river Mahakam.
But they face problems on the ground because there are very steep mountain gap. The place they named plot Tapas or Supreme In Ravine.
To cross the great chasm in the team members make Pantar or bridge / catwalk of ironwood. The bridge was called Pantar Rambang Rambang or Titian. According Topus tumbles society, the great chasm in and Pantar Rambang it has magic, vanished from the eye and can not be found anymore.
In making the crossing bridge, one of the members of the expedition named Bihing fall into the abyss that Tapas plot. To seek and to save Bihing that falls into the great abyss, all the expedition team members gather all the cane that is in the Stone Ayau. However Bihing not found as well.
According to Punan Joyless at Topus tumbles, that's what resulted in no more cane plants around Batu Ayau. Rattan has been in use by the Expedition Team Rambang to make rope, to find Bihing the fall.
Once, to amuse Tambun and Bungai continuous crying for losing their beloved uncle Bihing, Ramang make Cow Sculpture. Until the 1980's stone by local people called the Cow stone is still there. But now the stone has been plundered by thieves and sold some where.
After crossing the chasm Tapas plot, then they walked down the mountain, heading to a village on the banks of the Mahakam river. The village was named Rangan Home, where the cages were cut Child Towong, the leader of a Dayak Mahakam fierce and valiant. According to the story there Asang melpenuliskan Ramang Expedition Team and win.
Stone Writing Sins
Places where Rambang make ulin and Batu Sapi bridge that is now called the Stone Ayau. In ancient times, every man who will go mengayau Dayak to east across the Rock Ayau that should make some kind of "writing of sin" that their departure is not just a fad or get an innocent person, but to take back the family spirit that has been direngut by the wicked. Such Pengpenulisan important reason for the Dayak dilpenuliskan shedding of blood for no reason is accursed deed.
Furthermore, in Batu melpenuliskan Ayau also home to several rituals before melpenuliskan assault. Rituals that include the ceremony mangahau Liau summon the spirits of families who had been beheaded by the enemy. The spirits were asked to get ready for it is the families who will come pick up.
Another ritual is mandoi buffer that is every member of headhunting expedition immersion bath of running water that is poured through the vines amulet or wicker basket. After that they marapi sabakang of cooking rice in bamboo Tamiang a length of about half a meter. Each person gets a piece of bamboo rice.
The peace-hunters
In the past, Land of Borneo was thick with horror. Coastal beaches are inhabited by the pirates and the interior is a bloody arena of the head-hunters. Historians and anthropologists agree, the situation is what makes this large population on the island was never much. On 22 May to 24 July 1894, approximately 830 people gathered in the Fall Anoi Dayak is a village in the Ot Danum Kahayan headwaters. They held a traditional meeting which is now called the Fall Peace Meeting Anoi. Peace Meeting was discussed about hakayau-haasang-habunu (cut each other's head, attacking each other-mutual animosity), the things that have been disturbing and make their lives uncomfortable. Very extraordinary! Dayak people who have been considered primitive within a period of 32 days has been talking about 233 cases. Case-case in question is a matter kayau (hunting and cutting head), habunu (revenge), jipen-kabalik (human sacrifices in the ceremony of death, the problem of hostage taking, robbery, the case of marriage and inheritance issues.)
Peace meeting held during the 32 days it managed to create a new history of the earth of Borneo. Civilization without wars and beheadings has been born. Collective agreements were taken, namely: to stop inter-tribal customs of war (Asang) and beheading (hakayau, stop the habit of revenge (habaleh-bunu). Since then no more victims of human head and slavery. Fines customary (jipen) which used in a way humans replaced with money. diberlpenuliskan customary law as tribal justice system.
On July 24, 1894, Peace Meeting was closed by lifting the oath together. In the presence of God the Creator, and witnessed by their ancestors swore that from that day until forever, whether they or their descendants, will no longer mutually-haasang hakayau-habunu. After that proceed with the ceremony of peace Tipuk Danum cleansing ceremony revenge and hatred.
Spiritual Pilgrimage
At the top of Stone Ayau seemed stuck a few small pieces of wood measuring about one fathom. At the end of the divided bar tucked into one or two clove cigarettes. "This is how the Dayak report itself, if the first time crossed the Stone Ayau shall give an offering though only sepucuk cigarettes, Ica Amai explained when asked what is the meaning of a small timber that is attached to it.
Despite an era-kayau Asang have passed since the Fall Peace Meeting Anoi 1894, Stone Ayau mystical charm does not fade. He is not just a steep steep wall storage Dayak stories of heroism, but also has become a place of spiritual pilgrimage. There are many Dayak people who deliberately come to that place. In addition to stepped-trace the story Rambang, Tambun, Bungai and exhausted, as well as for bahajat namely to declare the intention of the heart, inner concerns and ideals of life. Indeed, the authors wanted to go back to the Stone Ayau. In addition to flying the yellow flag and offered peace offerings, also to make pengpenulisan sin. Sin for not-helpless against looting wilderness "green gold" of Borneo into the lungs of the world.

* Marko is a Lecturer MAHIN Dayak Religion and Culture School of Theology at the Evangelical Church of Kalimantan, Banjarmasin and Researcher at the Institute for the Study of Dayak-21.
source: Thank you for visited me, Have a question? Contact on: Please leave your comment below. Thank you and hope you enjoyed ... Posted by Yohansen Borneo on Friday, January 15, 2010

Senin, 25 April 2011

Principal characteristics of Dayak culture

Principal characteristics of Dayak culture (part 1)

The division of Dayak tribes in large groups based on similarity adat law, language or rites of death shows a diversity of natural enough considering the geographic and demographic conditions of Borneo. But we can menelusiri some basic characteristics that are typical of the show cultural similarities among all the Dayak tribe in Kalimantan.

1. Longhouse (Lamin, betang, hall, Lawu hante) 

All the Dayak tribe, except for forgiveness of the living tribe wanders, initially stayed in long houses called Lamin, betang, hall, Lewu hante, etc.. Typical characteristic of this long house: built on poles high enough; in it there is always a large room used for the common interest, such as indigenous ceremony, where guests spend the night and so on. , Each family occupying one room, while an unmarried bachelor general the room to sleep. Newly married couples to build additional rooms in the house that long. That's why this longhouse can grow and become longer and longer.

This long house to function as:

- A refuge from all kinds of danger, whether from wild animals as well as of other enemies;

- Centers around the life of the tribe, because that's where all the ceremonies, which involves both physical and spiritual life, are maintained; from there they moved on to earn a living and over there they bring good fortune;

- The symbol of a harmonious communal life; in longhouses no shortage and there is no excess; overall occupant is responsible for maintaining the common welfare;

- Centers of education and youth development. In the language maayan, this hall is called the "hall mantawara, jaru mantaajar" which means the halls of education, where teaching. In its disposal to say: "if the girls could not mengayam the bachelor can not make rope and forged spears, take kebalai education and teaching space, so that's pretty sweet clever mengayam mamapu gallant man makes a spear.". 

2. weapons: Saber and blowpipe

Typical weapons and owned by all ethnic Dayak is Saber, which is not owned by the tribe-other susku in Indonesia. A kind of long knife, a small base of a thick section, and then increasingly broad and slightly curved. At the end melancip. Groove along the blade is decorated with carvings and sometimes filled with silver or brass. Heads or upstream saber is made of wood or horn, also carved. Similarly, a knife sheath made of carved wood, and sometimes from animal skin. A very unique from this saber, was when he tied waist, then the sharp blade is always directed upward / downward into and not just as the weapons of other kinds of knives. And this only happens on the saber. It gives practical instructions on how to use the science of battle. With one pull out a direct attack, by not using hand rocking motion from top to bottom.

Blowpipe is also a typical Dayak weapon, which is made of ironwood (iron wood) that is very hard to sustain endurance kelurusannya. These weapons used for hunting and war dangan use Damak. Damak have a poisonous and some are not. There was poison bebagai types, from nature just as the tranquilizer to the direct lethal. About this blowgun weapons I do not know for sure if also owned by the tribe-other susku in Indonesia. But certainly all Dayak tribes have and know this blowgun weapons. When hunting firearms as a tool of society drawn, we see how the blowpipe berfingsi again.

3. webbing

Crafts households in the form of woven (especially from rattan) are from all ethnic Dayak. The unique woven Adri is seen in 2 (two) forms, namely: a. sleeping mats and mat ceremony, and b. strapless transport basket. Sleeping mats and matting ceremony at umumnay finely woven rattan janinan with motifs taken from the mythology of the tribe. Each motif has its own name and meaning.

While wicker basket, especially given the transport basket roped to shoulder, in my opinion uniquely owned by the Dayak tribe. Basket transport function and usefulness of this variety, there is for clothing, rice, firewood, etc.. Usefulness seemed in fine form-roughly the making, so did his little basket-BESA.

Principal characteristics of Dayak culture (part 2)


4. earthenware

Vessel, jars, pottery belangan since thousands of years is part of the tradition of Dayak tribes in Borneo. The function of this vessel also varied, from the storage of rice, palm wine and other objects up to the place where the corpse. Forms and motifs that exist in this vessel also vary as well that determine its use. He is also a symbol of wealth and social status of a person. Among certain tribes vessel is one of the conditions as "dowry".

5. swidden system

Consistent shifting (switching) is a uniform culture among the natives of Borneo. Although this is not to say typical Dayak, because the system there are fields everywhere in Indonesia, but there are aspects which can be categorized as typical of Dayak culture. This is apparent in terms of indigenous farming:

- Request permission from the chief / head of the indigenous peoples;

- Search the forest by following certain provisions, both in terms of knowledge about nature, as well as in terms of the trust if the forest that will be worked out that will bring happiness or accident;

- Ceremonial opening of forests and subsequent cultivation such as cutting, burning and cleaning;

- Rice cultivation system "sowing" is using a wooden stick to make holes in the ground which is then filled with rice seed;

- Heavy jobs such as opening early and penugalan usually done in mutual cooperation by the entire population; work is done in turns in each and every lading. Thus the need for labor can be addressed together;

- Menuaipun work done again in a mutual assistance;

- Events of sowing and reaping is considered fun event, and because it is almost always accompanied by song and dance.

Although there among the Dayak tribes who has used this system, rice fields, with irrigation and the use of plows pulled by water buffalo, as among the tribes Lun Daye in Karayam - Kaltim and tribal Kalabit, but in general are all familiar with the system shifting. System fields are already memeperhitungkan crop rotation cycle, with the former shifting kembalii plant with strong plants such as coffee, rubber and fruit trees. Also by letting the former land back into forest underbrush so as to obtain the return of fertility levels are adequate, then after a period of a new cycle of 4-6 years is expected to return. Therefore, shifting (moving) can not dikambinghitamkan as a cause of forest destruction or the environment.

6. position of women in society

Geological system in the Dayak is parental, where the father-mother's lineage is considered equal. This is different from the patrilineal system (paternal line / male) or matrilineal system (maternal lineage / woman). Therefore, the Dayak people in fact women have an equal footing with men. Whether in social life and religious life of women prominent enough role. When compared with other religions like Christianity that requires very long time to awaken women to be pastors. Then in the Dayak community had since semulanya the wnaita role as shaman (priest, prietress). Among the tribe Maayan instance, position balian death (wadian Matei) just held you lady. 

SAA Position ii women guaranteed in the law adapt, as in the indigenous law of marriage. Basically susku marriage among the Dayak is monogamy. The existence of polygamy is a situation that is not normal, extraordinary circumstances or out of the ordinary. If it happens there are provisions that give the advantage to adapt the first wife. If there perjinahan, there are strict penalties in indigenous law. Usually quite detailed settings, such as:

- Perjinahan (free sex) with a married woman, even this more differentiated between women who already have children with no children.

- Perjinahan committed by a man who was his legal wife is different from the man who is not married, and many more indigenous provisions which essentially would guarantee the status of the women. 

7. dance

In traditional societies, tdilaksanakan always in the context of ritual and ceremonial. But there are also dances are held on public occasions, such as mutual assistance in time of rice planting and harvest time. The dance is basically a seleberasi life. Therefore as far as I know, law among indigenous Dayak tribes prohibit the holding of dances during a certain period after the death. At the end of the death rite, which marks the return to life, the party was held a festive dances. 

Dancing among the Dayak tribe is not devoted to the specialist dancers, but basically always a folk dance, where everyone, men and women, young and old participated. Philosophy of dance is always pointing to the celebration of life, freedom from fear of death and any sense of personal grief, he describes the dramatic climax of a transition from death to life.

As a folk dance, although there are patterns of dance movement, but each applicant is free to conduct improvised-improvised according to their own variations. No motion dictated by the shape of the dance. All dances among the Dayak tribe memperluhatkan face of popular dances, that is, not an expression of feudal, such as keratin and similar dances. Freedom in the dance show held inprovasisasi the competitive aspects of the creative.

As a result of the demands of today's kemoderenan, what else in the process of doing tourism, then the free movements that have dikoreografikan into movement groups, conducted by the dancers in a geometric pattern with joint motions. The problem of how to find a way for the vital force and originality of the dance can be continued and maintained.

Cultural development in order to improve the living standard

With megemukakan principal characteristic which indicates the similarity of culture in the Dayak tribes of Borneo does not mean that there are only 7 (seven) cirri which can be found. Principal characteristic that I mentioned most of the material culture diambildari embodiment (physical) and only 2 (two) who are spiritual culture (non-physical). Would find even more characteristic that if we multiply together the spiritual culture, such as for instance culture mengayau, insane views about the origin of ethnic, religious systems, etc..

Culture as a result of human cultivation also contains a set of positive values ​​and who live in the community. It is these values ​​that will determine the philosophy of life (lebensanschauung) and view of the world (weltanschauung). Therefore culture is experienced as the power of integrative and provide identity for the supporters. The problem faced now how to maintain the strength intergratif culture in order to build the people's economy by improving living standards of quality.

Hopefully can menampah knowledge all my friends.

good evening