Selasa, 03 September 2013

ngayau tradition in war banjar





Approximately 152 years ago, on 28 April 1859, riots broke out in Kalimantan greatest, namely Banjar War. One aspect that escaped or at least less exposed to the writings of earlier about the incident is related to the presence of ngayau practices in the war. 


Ngayau or Kayau generally understood to be in the habit of decapitating Borneo indigenous past. But according to Darius Dubud (2004: 45), mangayau not just cut the head without meaning, or some sort of barbaric acts. As the oldest inhabitants of the island of Borneo, the Dayaks had always lived at one with nature. In this encounter with nature they experience the power of God, so that all behavior is directed to maintain balance jamal jalaldan aspects (positive and negative). Any deviant behavior would invite the wrath of God He claimed in the form of natural disasters. From this angle by Dubud, can understand the true meaning of mangayau, that tradition of decapitating it is a ritual to maintain the balance of nature. 


Subjectivity of interpretation 



Darius Dubud above explanation reveals the philosophical and theological value behind tradisingayau. In this case, the victim surely kayauan individuals or groups that are considered sinful by customs, so her 'legitimate' for dikayau. So kayau is a form of sanctions, or some sort of sacrifice for the sake of avoiding the natural balance of the human race from the wrath of God. 



The problem is, when the Dayaks were not in the 'ethnic unity' as it is now, of course there is subjectivity among ethnic subgroups in interpreting who is deviant behavior, and who has the right to punish?As revealed by Helius Sjamsuddin (2001: 50-56) until the 1850s inter-tribal warfare was common in the hinterland of Central Kalimantan, for example, between the Tribe Ngaju afternoon versus-Glum, or between the tribe versus tribe Ngaju Pari. Of the two types of tribal warfare (kayau and Asang), kayau is kind of a small group attack certain parts without prior notice to the enemy to be hunted his head. 

For most civilized nations, such practices are common sense clearly unacceptable. No wonder when in 1802 Dutch politics and the economy contracted by Sultan Banjar (South Kalimantan and Central authorities at that time), their representatives, Commissioner F. van Boeckholtz, of whom require sultan must act decisively "to people in countries who labor Dajak So that the chief was given a sentence cut cut back on the face of the Compagnie lodji .." (National Archives, 1965: 163). 

Moreover, more than half a century later, the Dutch were also targeted kayau in Banjar War. They recorded-at least-is the soldiers and sailors who drowned in war Onrust Barito river in December 1859 by Hero Soerapatti and his followers. According Parelaer (in the Sjamsuddin.Op.Cit: 233), in the invasion of Dayak warriors led Soerapatti cut off the heads of his victims as trophies of victory. 

As bearers of European civilization (Western), can be understood when the Dutch tried to remove the barbaric tradition, as implied in the contents above 1802 contract. Yet another fact Banjar War on opposition leaders presented Idwar Saleh (1991: 26-27, see also Saleh: 1985: 23) may present a startling paradox. 

Here are the facts: 

Once captured in Batu slick ruse, Demat demang Lehman who was hanged in 1864 in Martapura, his head cut off to get the Dutch museum. A year later, Rashid penghoeloe wounded in combat in Lawas Banua fa, head decapitated by someone who also tempted by the Dutch paid. The head of the prince handed to them anyway. Experienced a similar fate Hero Jalil who died in 1861 at the Battle Tundakan in Awayan. Hero's corpse actually had long been buried in secret by his followers.However, after the location is known, the tomb was immediately dismantled and his skull was also taken to museum Netherlands. 

-------> The Elusive, Netherlands who consider themselves civilized it was also 'mangayau' enemies. This fact proves, how thin the difference (even sometimes confused) between the civilized nations that are considered barbaric. 



Western ambiguity


If civilization is defined by the dictionary as an inner cultural progress, then the failure of a civilized nation was not fully measured by the values ​​of civilization itself. In the context of international relations of the past, civilization or savagery is more determined by the party that controls the mass memory system to support printing technology, writing culture, and also supported by, of course, military and economic power. Advantage in that it allows the parties free to define ourselves as a civilized nation, and in the name of civilization was entitled to annex, be aggressive, and colonize other nations are labeled barbaric.

Then east civilize the world also seemed to be an obsession and noble mission of Western nations that period. This is for example reflected in the Dutch military marching song excerpt when they fight Aceh: "Into Aceh Sultan! Nest of all evil ... With the three colors Netherlands 'civilization' grow .. "(Tempo: 2003: 70). But when translated into reality, it was none other civilizations is a fact about all-out exploitation of the colonies for wealth flowed into Europe there.

Ironically the spirit of colonialism as not easily disappear from the face of the earth, even though he was wrapped by methods more subtle, sophisticated, and legitimate. The proof, the world seems helpless with the actions of the United States as the vanguard of Western civilization today. Through the mastery of communication and information systems with all its advanced technologies, America can dictate world opinion about everything, according to his interests. All as 'enchanted' to always be subject to the 'word' of the Adi Power of steps that must be taken as a collective action, in order to create a better world order, democratic, and civilized (in the American version, of course).

Vietnam, Uganda, Cuba, Afghanistan, Iraq (maybe next Iran) is the part of the victim of an American civilization. As in the past, always grinning greedily kavitalis fangs behind the civilizing mission that wrap tightly. Fangs are ready to pounce on, sucking, and eating oil, gas, coal, gold, tin, or other strategic potential in every inch of the earth.

By Because almost all take place under the UN resolution, it was a legitimate military aggression waged for. Diberadabkan world in a way that is not at all civilized. Countries in democratic tyranny right through undemocratic means (but not against the tyrant who became slaves kavitalisnya). Nuclear technology is threatening the world, except in the hands of himself and his allies. Facts arbitrarily distorted rhetoric me.

For a careful study of history, the real ambiguity West has long read. Tata world-even human civilization-is not built based on the facts, but rather is determined by the 'strong man' so that they are always weak in the power. Entering the second decade of the third millennium BC era, human relationship system apparently has not moved away from the 'law of the jungle'. Naturally, when the 'barbaric instincts' appeared and asked, why do the wicked do not 'dikayau' alone? In order to balance the universe re-created? Order no longer a humanitarian disaster struck?

Of course this is just a utopian instinct amid helplessness third world. Moreover affairs kayau-mangayau long extinct and living the story.

Note:

* This paper was published in the Daily Edition * RADAR BANJARMASIN Monday, May 7, 2007


* I am very grateful if there is a friend who re posting this article as my previous post "National Geger for Local Performing (Speech Sukarno in Small Town)" via personal blogs or other media. But this time please include the author's name, so that we avoid plagiarism practices that clearly violate the intellectual ethics. Thank you. Greetings.
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