Senin, 08 Juli 2013

Conservation Orangutan Borneo (Pongo pygmaeus)

This task is still subject KSDAH (Conservation of Natural Resources), in semester3. contains about the movement for the conservation of Borneo orangutan by Saqinah Nur Rahmawati


Borneo's orangutans in Ragunan Zoo

Borneo's orangutans in Ragunan Zoo

Borneo Orangutan Description

Indonesia is a country rich in biodiversity so that the No.-3 megabiodiversity country after Brazil and Congo. One of Indonesia is rich in diversity of primate species. Supriatna and Wahyono (2000) states that 20% of world's primate species can be found in Indonesia. One of these is the Orangutan primate species.

Orangutans are the only one of the four great apes that live in Asia, three other great apes, namely gorillas, chimpanzees and bonodo found in parts of Africa (Suhud and Saleh, 2007). Total population 90% are in the territory of Indonesia, which can only be found in Borneo (Kalimantan) and in the northern part of Sumatra. Yet according to the fossil record to experts, by the end Pleistone Orangutan can be found in most of the lowland forests of Southeast Asia, from the foothills Wuliang Shan in Yunnan, South China, to the south of the island of Java, with a broad distribution of the total 1.5 million km ² (Rijksen and Meijard, 1999). According to the Holy Sri Utami Atmoko (2007), Borneo Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) and the Sumatran Orangutan (Pongo abelii) geographically separated since at least 10,000 years ago, when sea level rise occurred between the two islands.

There are differences that can be seen by observing the morphology and behavior between them. Judging from the morphology, Borneo Orangutan has a brighter hair color and larger body than the Sumatran Orangutan. Borneo Orangutan behavior in nature is moving more slowly and often do activities fell from the tree and the ground. While the Sumatran Orangutan has a more active behavior and rarely do the activities on the ground. This is to avoid themselves from predatory wildlife in Sumatra, which may threaten the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris). If dibandingkanantara males and females, according to the study Purwo Kuncoro (2004) Orangutan males do more activity than female Orangutan.

Orangutan Kalimantan / Borneo (Pongo pygmaeus) including the deployment into the family Hominidae in Kalimantan (Indonesia), Sabah and Sarawak (Malaysia). Borneo Orangutan is one of 44 species endemic in Kalimantan (Santosa, 2008). Orangutans of Borneo is divided into three sub-types based on morphological and genetic variation, namely: Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus (northwest section Kalmantan and Sabah), Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii (in the southwestern part of Borneo), and Pongo pygmaeus morio (eastern part of Kalimantan and Sabah) ( Warren et al. 2001).

Sustainability threat Borneo Orangutan

Like the other great apes, orangutans are one of the most endangered primates in the world. Orangutans in the IUCN Red List (2008) are included in the category of Genting (Endangered). What is meant by Genting category is a species with a very high risk of extinction in the wild yag in the near future, and the risk of becoming critical. In practice are included in this group are species in 20 years or 5 generations have extinction ratio greater than 50% (Primack et al, 2007). According to Singleton et al. (2004), the total number of orangutans are expected to decline 14% over the last 10 years until the mid-20th century.

Threat to the greater population of this species, not only because of the threat of habitat but also the threat posed by human activities that are not responsible. Forest destruction, land conversion for plantations, forest fires, illegal logging and habitat exploitation, Orangutan habitat fragmentation, poaching, and trade became the main cause of the decline of these animals.

Climate change also plays an important role against the loss Borneo Orangutan and threatened species will increase in the future is precarious. In the year 1997/1998 drought that began in the Kalimantan due to El Nino which then led to the largest forest fires ever happened (Suhud and Saleh, 2007). This is also evidenced by the data published by Rijksen and Meijaard in 1999 the show has lost 33% during the Borneo Orangutan forest fires of the 1990s period.

Consequently illegal logging Orangutan destroy ecosystems due to the lack of local awareness about illegal logging. WWF noted that most people in Borneo are not so concerned with illegal logging. In fact, the scarcity of jobs means that the average person would love to work in the forestry sector, whether or not legally run. It is triggered by an increase in human population, which led to problems in meeting the needs of humanity through the availability of jobs. Thus undergo things that are not to be responsible for the fulfillment of needs of man.

Orangutan trade was increasingly prevalent with decreasing orangutan population in the wild. Though Orangutans included in Appendix I of CITES (2001), which means Orangutan should not be traded anywhere. However, the law enforcement system that is still less that there are still cases perdaganggan protected animals. Such as the case of 48 orangutans smuggled into Thailand (Atmoko, 2007)

Orangutans living in protected areas and unprotected. Orangutans in Borneo are 15 protected areas, but half of the region that there is not a call for support for Orangutan habitat. Plus a drastic shrinkage continued during the past two decades (Atmoko, 2007). Habitat is reduced by a change in the island's tropical forests and the konersi tropical forests into plantations. Plantation agriculture is not only oil palm plantations, but also acacia, rice, chocolate and so on. As a result of the conversion of this land of 15.5 million hectares of tropical forests (24% of total forest area) as of the year 1985 and 1997 in Sumatra and Kalimantan (FAO, 2000). Now only 86,000 km ² available habitat for orangutans.

Conversion of land into oil palm plantations in Borneo is the international response to the great need for this commodity are used specifically for cooking, cosmetics, mechanics and need to be used as biodiesel resource.

Oil palm is the most productive oil seed in the world. Palm oil has become a very important agricultural product for tropical countries around the world, especially when the price of crude oil reached $ 70 a barrel (Butler, 2010).

Open lowland rainforests for plantations is deforestation which accounts for 24% of the forests in Indonesia is pengggundulan for oil palm plantations (FAO, 2000). Become very concerned that Indonesia has announced plans to double its crude oil production in 2025 (Butler, 2010), a goal that will require a 2-fold increase in the results or just expand the area to be planted with oil palm. This is of great concern, because if the expansion of oil palm cultivation area means the area of ​​forest in the conversion, and the narrowing of Borneo Orangutan habitat space.

In addition to the effects of deforestation there are other impacts that must be considered by all parties that the impact on the environment. Plantations in Indonesia are so damaging that after 25 years of harvesting, oil palm land often abandoned scrubland. Soil may be leached of nutrients, especially in acidic environments, so some plants may grow, making the area without vegetation than the weeds that will be easy to get burned.

Several studies have found a significant reduction of biodiversity decline among 80% to 90% of mammals, birds and reptiles (Butler, 2010). Many animals are not able to enter aan estates, such as orangutans become pests destroy plantations so few companies with illegal hunting plantation workers on the basis of penangungalangan damage that will be done by Orangutan. With the oil palm plantations as has been mentioned previously that the ex-arable land was no longer fertile palm oil, thus indirectly reducing the oil palm plantation life supporting power plant-eating wildlife such as the orangutan is a fruit eater (frugivory), but occasionally eat insects, so the endangered Orangutan. This reduction in carrying capacity (habitat area reduction, reduced availability of food and drink) will slowly lead to extinction. A species said to be extinct when no one individual of the species that live in the world (Primack et al, 2007). Orangutan current condition is alarming, but the legi-again exacerbated by human activities continue to meet their needs.

Discuss the Borneo Orangutan destruction by oil palm plantation company intentionally because it is considered destructive pests with illegal hunting by farm workers is an irony to this country. On the other hand efforts have been made such as creating wildlife Protection Regulations No.233 In 1931, Law no. 5 In 1990, the Ministry of Forestry decree No. June 10, 1991. 301/Kpts-II/1991 and PP. 7 of 1999 as a form of law enforcement efforts. However smuanya back to the awareness of the importance of protecting this species endemic to continue growing conservation ethic with a real movement to conserve orangutans.

Borneo Orangutan Rescue Efforts

Regardless of the number or importance to humans, high economic value or not, every species has the right to life and survival of each species must be guaranteed for all species have intrinsic value according ekosentris view (Deep ecology). Intrinsic value is the value contained in the resource (Fauzi, 2006).

Definition of Conservation of Natural Resources and Ecosystems, according to Law 50 of 1990, is the management of natural resources utilization is done wisely to ensure continuity of supply by continuing to establish, maintain, and improve the quality and value diversity. One of Indonesia's biodiversity that needs to be saved through conservation is the Orangutan. Interference experienced by one element interferes with the whole ecosystem (Olivia, 2004), so the use of conservation concern will be impaired as well.

To overcome the threatened extinction of the Orangutans of Borneo since the 1960s have done reabilitasi Orangutan program with the primary objective to increase the population and improving the quality of life Orangutan (Atmoko, 2007). Rehabilitation is the process of returning animals to the wild of life catch wildlife in a natural environment (Alikodra, 2010) rehabilitation projects to be one way out to overcome a threatened species in the rehabilitation process should also conduct conservation education and conservation efforts involving local communities and widespread. Rehabilitation carried out in the area of ​​Borneo Orangutan distribution, one Tanjung Puting, Central Kalimantan.
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