Senin, 25 April 2011

Principal characteristics of Dayak culture

Principal characteristics of Dayak culture (part 1)

The division of Dayak tribes in large groups based on similarity adat law, language or rites of death shows a diversity of natural enough considering the geographic and demographic conditions of Borneo. But we can menelusiri some basic characteristics that are typical of the show cultural similarities among all the Dayak tribe in Kalimantan.

1. Longhouse (Lamin, betang, hall, Lawu hante) 

All the Dayak tribe, except for forgiveness of the living tribe wanders, initially stayed in long houses called Lamin, betang, hall, Lewu hante, etc.. Typical characteristic of this long house: built on poles high enough; in it there is always a large room used for the common interest, such as indigenous ceremony, where guests spend the night and so on. , Each family occupying one room, while an unmarried bachelor general the room to sleep. Newly married couples to build additional rooms in the house that long. That's why this longhouse can grow and become longer and longer.

This long house to function as:

- A refuge from all kinds of danger, whether from wild animals as well as of other enemies;

- Centers around the life of the tribe, because that's where all the ceremonies, which involves both physical and spiritual life, are maintained; from there they moved on to earn a living and over there they bring good fortune;

- The symbol of a harmonious communal life; in longhouses no shortage and there is no excess; overall occupant is responsible for maintaining the common welfare;

- Centers of education and youth development. In the language maayan, this hall is called the "hall mantawara, jaru mantaajar" which means the halls of education, where teaching. In its disposal to say: "if the girls could not mengayam the bachelor can not make rope and forged spears, take kebalai education and teaching space, so that's pretty sweet clever mengayam mamapu gallant man makes a spear.". 

2. weapons: Saber and blowpipe

Typical weapons and owned by all ethnic Dayak is Saber, which is not owned by the tribe-other susku in Indonesia. A kind of long knife, a small base of a thick section, and then increasingly broad and slightly curved. At the end melancip. Groove along the blade is decorated with carvings and sometimes filled with silver or brass. Heads or upstream saber is made of wood or horn, also carved. Similarly, a knife sheath made of carved wood, and sometimes from animal skin. A very unique from this saber, was when he tied waist, then the sharp blade is always directed upward / downward into and not just as the weapons of other kinds of knives. And this only happens on the saber. It gives practical instructions on how to use the science of battle. With one pull out a direct attack, by not using hand rocking motion from top to bottom.

Blowpipe is also a typical Dayak weapon, which is made of ironwood (iron wood) that is very hard to sustain endurance kelurusannya. These weapons used for hunting and war dangan use Damak. Damak have a poisonous and some are not. There was poison bebagai types, from nature just as the tranquilizer to the direct lethal. About this blowgun weapons I do not know for sure if also owned by the tribe-other susku in Indonesia. But certainly all Dayak tribes have and know this blowgun weapons. When hunting firearms as a tool of society drawn, we see how the blowpipe berfingsi again.

3. webbing

Crafts households in the form of woven (especially from rattan) are from all ethnic Dayak. The unique woven Adri is seen in 2 (two) forms, namely: a. sleeping mats and mat ceremony, and b. strapless transport basket. Sleeping mats and matting ceremony at umumnay finely woven rattan janinan with motifs taken from the mythology of the tribe. Each motif has its own name and meaning.

While wicker basket, especially given the transport basket roped to shoulder, in my opinion uniquely owned by the Dayak tribe. Basket transport function and usefulness of this variety, there is for clothing, rice, firewood, etc.. Usefulness seemed in fine form-roughly the making, so did his little basket-BESA.

Principal characteristics of Dayak culture (part 2)


4. earthenware

Vessel, jars, pottery belangan since thousands of years is part of the tradition of Dayak tribes in Borneo. The function of this vessel also varied, from the storage of rice, palm wine and other objects up to the place where the corpse. Forms and motifs that exist in this vessel also vary as well that determine its use. He is also a symbol of wealth and social status of a person. Among certain tribes vessel is one of the conditions as "dowry".

5. swidden system

Consistent shifting (switching) is a uniform culture among the natives of Borneo. Although this is not to say typical Dayak, because the system there are fields everywhere in Indonesia, but there are aspects which can be categorized as typical of Dayak culture. This is apparent in terms of indigenous farming:

- Request permission from the chief / head of the indigenous peoples;

- Search the forest by following certain provisions, both in terms of knowledge about nature, as well as in terms of the trust if the forest that will be worked out that will bring happiness or accident;

- Ceremonial opening of forests and subsequent cultivation such as cutting, burning and cleaning;

- Rice cultivation system "sowing" is using a wooden stick to make holes in the ground which is then filled with rice seed;

- Heavy jobs such as opening early and penugalan usually done in mutual cooperation by the entire population; work is done in turns in each and every lading. Thus the need for labor can be addressed together;

- Menuaipun work done again in a mutual assistance;

- Events of sowing and reaping is considered fun event, and because it is almost always accompanied by song and dance.

Although there among the Dayak tribes who has used this system, rice fields, with irrigation and the use of plows pulled by water buffalo, as among the tribes Lun Daye in Karayam - Kaltim and tribal Kalabit, but in general are all familiar with the system shifting. System fields are already memeperhitungkan crop rotation cycle, with the former shifting kembalii plant with strong plants such as coffee, rubber and fruit trees. Also by letting the former land back into forest underbrush so as to obtain the return of fertility levels are adequate, then after a period of a new cycle of 4-6 years is expected to return. Therefore, shifting (moving) can not dikambinghitamkan as a cause of forest destruction or the environment.

6. position of women in society

Geological system in the Dayak is parental, where the father-mother's lineage is considered equal. This is different from the patrilineal system (paternal line / male) or matrilineal system (maternal lineage / woman). Therefore, the Dayak people in fact women have an equal footing with men. Whether in social life and religious life of women prominent enough role. When compared with other religions like Christianity that requires very long time to awaken women to be pastors. Then in the Dayak community had since semulanya the wnaita role as shaman (priest, prietress). Among the tribe Maayan instance, position balian death (wadian Matei) just held you lady. 

SAA Position ii women guaranteed in the law adapt, as in the indigenous law of marriage. Basically susku marriage among the Dayak is monogamy. The existence of polygamy is a situation that is not normal, extraordinary circumstances or out of the ordinary. If it happens there are provisions that give the advantage to adapt the first wife. If there perjinahan, there are strict penalties in indigenous law. Usually quite detailed settings, such as:

- Perjinahan (free sex) with a married woman, even this more differentiated between women who already have children with no children.

- Perjinahan committed by a man who was his legal wife is different from the man who is not married, and many more indigenous provisions which essentially would guarantee the status of the women. 

7. dance

In traditional societies, tdilaksanakan always in the context of ritual and ceremonial. But there are also dances are held on public occasions, such as mutual assistance in time of rice planting and harvest time. The dance is basically a seleberasi life. Therefore as far as I know, law among indigenous Dayak tribes prohibit the holding of dances during a certain period after the death. At the end of the death rite, which marks the return to life, the party was held a festive dances. 

Dancing among the Dayak tribe is not devoted to the specialist dancers, but basically always a folk dance, where everyone, men and women, young and old participated. Philosophy of dance is always pointing to the celebration of life, freedom from fear of death and any sense of personal grief, he describes the dramatic climax of a transition from death to life.

As a folk dance, although there are patterns of dance movement, but each applicant is free to conduct improvised-improvised according to their own variations. No motion dictated by the shape of the dance. All dances among the Dayak tribe memperluhatkan face of popular dances, that is, not an expression of feudal, such as keratin and similar dances. Freedom in the dance show held inprovasisasi the competitive aspects of the creative.

As a result of the demands of today's kemoderenan, what else in the process of doing tourism, then the free movements that have dikoreografikan into movement groups, conducted by the dancers in a geometric pattern with joint motions. The problem of how to find a way for the vital force and originality of the dance can be continued and maintained.

Cultural development in order to improve the living standard

With megemukakan principal characteristic which indicates the similarity of culture in the Dayak tribes of Borneo does not mean that there are only 7 (seven) cirri which can be found. Principal characteristic that I mentioned most of the material culture diambildari embodiment (physical) and only 2 (two) who are spiritual culture (non-physical). Would find even more characteristic that if we multiply together the spiritual culture, such as for instance culture mengayau, insane views about the origin of ethnic, religious systems, etc..

Culture as a result of human cultivation also contains a set of positive values ​​and who live in the community. It is these values ​​that will determine the philosophy of life (lebensanschauung) and view of the world (weltanschauung). Therefore culture is experienced as the power of integrative and provide identity for the supporters. The problem faced now how to maintain the strength intergratif culture in order to build the people's economy by improving living standards of quality.

Hopefully can menampah knowledge all my friends.

good evening
Posting Komentar