Jumat, 28 Januari 2011

MANAGEMENT OF BARITO RIVER SYSTEM

Wednesday, March 3, 2010
 
BACKGROUND


The river is a complex system (complex) but does not irregular (complicated). Complex system is a system consisting of many components, where the components are interrelated and influence in a synergistic system, capable of producing a working system and an efficient product. There are two main functions provided by nature to the river, namely: drain water and sediment mengakut result of erosion in the watershed and the plot that both take place simultaneously and influence each other.Utilization potential of the river the last few decades is done on a large scale and very intensive, especially in developing countries including Indonesia. In general, methods of river management in developing countries can be said to mimic the total way of handling the river that developed countries have done several times before though encountered some differences. In developed countries such as the development process of the river in the United States, Japan, Germany, Holland and several other European countries have gone through three stages are: stage of development (River development), stage experience and study the impacts of river development that done before (Impact of River Development) and stages of restoration or merenaturalisasi rivers that have been built before (River Restoration)
In the German state as the advanced industrial countries that experienced floods and erosion continually, damage to ecosystems along the river changes in ground water, as well as progress towards renaturalisasi river area, may be used as an illustration of a process engineering development of the use of the river area that is a simple concept hdralik pure to the concept of integrated development Eco-hidraulic (hydraulic ecological development)In developing countries such as Indonesia riverside development method most still use the method developed countries at the first stage, namely partial river development. For consideration due to river ecology and the impact of development has not yet been signed in the calculation as an important factor, so that many problems occur on the river that could lead to human disasters. Similarly, in Central Kalimantan province as a province that has a number of rivers that many (big and small) which is the natural assets and potential as supporting development in order to improve the welfare of the people of Central Kalimantan. These natural assets must be maintained and managed by the rules and theories that are tailored to the circumstances on the ground.Legal regulations governing the management of rivers in Indonesia have been many issued by governments such as Law No. 7 of 2004 on Water Resources, Government Regulation No. 42 of 2008 on Water Resources Management, Regulation of the President of the Republic of Indonesia Number 12 Year 2008 About the Board Source Water Resources and Minister of Public Works No. 04/PRT/M/2008 About Container Management Coordination Guidelines for Establishment of Water Resources at the Provincial level, District, and the River Region (TKPSDA). All regulations are expected to manage and resolve conflicts of interest inherent in a river area, although until now still difficult to implement.


WATERSHED MANAGEMENT IN INDONESIA
Watershed (DAS) is defined as an area of land which is a unity with the river and its tributaries, which serve to accommodate, store danmengalirkan water originating from rainfall to the lake or the sea naturally, yangbatas on land is a topographical and separator boundary in the sea up to still be affected daerahperairan land activities (Law No. 7 of 2004 on Water Resources).Based on the understanding of these definitions, the watershed is an area of land or land that has a component of topography, rocks, soil, vegetation, water, rivers, climate, animals, people and activities located in, under, and on the ground. Although the definition or understanding of the same watershed at several different Laws (Forestry and Water Resources), but the implementation and pengejawantahannya in watershed management has not been the same: once this becomes the first problem that must be completed for each ministry and mainframe platforms, agencies, and other institutions become same. Watershed management is the effort in managing the interrelationships between natural resources, especially vegetation, soil and water with human resources in the watershed and all its activities to gain economic benefits and environmental services for the interests of development and sustainability of watershed ecosystems. Watershed management in principle is the arrangement of land use or optimizing the use of land for various purposes in a rational as well as other practices which are environmentally friendly so it can be assessed by key indicators (ultimate indicator) the quantity, quality and continuity of the river flow at the point of spending (outlet) basin. So one of the characteristics of a watershed is the presence of the biophysical linkages between headwaterswith regions downstream through hydrologic cycle.Based on key indicators and other indicators (land, socio-economic and institutional) that have been defined it is known that the level of watershed damage then need to set priority handling. Priority I-DAS DAS DAS-DAS is the highest management priority as it shows the conditions and problems of biophysical and socio-economic watershed most "critical" or "unhealthy". DAS-II is a priority watershed management priorities are, while the third priority watersheds considered less priority to handle because soseknya biophysical conditions and still relatively good (not critical) or DAS is considered "healthy".Number of Priority Watershed I (critical) continues to grow since 30 years ago from 22 DAS in 1970 to 36 DAS in the 1980s and since 1999 to 60 DAS. An increasing number of First Priority watershed shows that watershed management has not been right on target.The critical level of a watershed / River Region indicated by a decline in permanent vegetation cover and expansion of critical land thereby reducing the ability of DAS / Region River in storing water that have an impact on the increasing frequency of flooding, erosion and the spread of landslides in the rainy season and droughts during the dry season. Until 2007, forest cover in Indonesia about 50% of land area and there is a tendency of forest-covered area of the area continued to decline with an average deforestation rate from 2000-2005 of about 1.089 million ha per year. While critical and very critical area is still wide which is about 30.2 million hectares (23.3 million ha consisted of very critical and critical 6.9 million ha), erosion from dryland farming areas of dense population remains high beyond what can be tolerated (15 tons / ha / yr) so that the function of watershed / Region River in regulating the hydrological cycle to decrease.Another factor that led to watershed management have not succeeded so well is the lack of coherence in the planning, implementation and monitoring of watershed management, including in terms of financing. This is because the number of agencies involved in watershed management such as the Ministry of Forestry, Ministry of Public Works, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Home Affairs, Bakosurtanal and the Ministry of Environment, the private and public companies.Watershed management involving many parties and administrative boundaries can lead to conflicts of interest between the parties involved in exploiting natural resources and watershed environmental services. This requires regulation and policy at various levels both at the national, provincial and district level and even at times up to village level. Because of efforts to address watershed issues require a lot of resources and length of time the river basin management should be included as one of the national program, the Long Term Development Plan and Medium Enterprises (RPJP and RPJM). Thus, watershed management programs has become mainstream in the activities and budget allocations at the national, provincial and district / city.


BARITO RIVER SYSTEM

            
In the Regulation of Government Regulation No. 42 Pengeleloan Water Resources, River Region is a unit area of water resources management in one or more of the watershed and / or small islands covering an area of less than or equal to 2,000 km2. By the Minister of Public Works in the Province of Central Kalimantan is divided into 6 Areas in Rivers, as in table 1.1.



Table 1.1. Sign Area Rivers in Central Kalimantan Province



NAMA WILAYAH SUNGAI
NAMA SUNGAI
PROVINSI YANG DILINTASI
KATEGORI WILAYAH SUNGAI
Jelai-Kendawangan
Sungai Jelai
Sungai Lamandau
Sungai Kumai
Sungai Arut
Kalimantan Barat dan Kalimantan Tengah
Pusat (lintas Provinsi)

Mentaya
Sungai Mentaya
Kalimantan Tengah
Kabupaten
Seruyan
Seruyan
Kalimantan Tengah
Pusat (strategis Nasional)
Katingan
Sungai Katingan
Kalimantan Tengah
Kabupaten
Kahayan
Sungai Kahayan
Sungai Sabangau
Kalimantan Tengah
Pusat (strategis Nasional)
Barito-Kapuas
Sungai Barito
Sungai Kapuas
Kalimantan Selatan
Kalimantan Tengah
Pusat (lintas Provinsi)






Central Kalimantan province has 11 major rivers (table 1.2 and figure 1.1) which has great potential for development of multi-functional. In general, rivers in Central Kalimantan province serves as a means of transportation for people in the uplands, along with the more intensive development in the field of land transport, river transport are being abandoned. In addition as a means of transport, river in Central Kalimantan province is also used as a source of raw water for drinking water, irrigation water sources and potential as a source of hydroelectric power.

Table 1.2. List of 11 major rivers in the province of Central Kalimantan




No.
Nama Sungai
Panjang (km)
Terlayari
(km)
Kedalaman Rata-rata (m)
Lebar Rata-rata (m)
Lokasi (Kabupaten)
1.
Jelai
200
150
8
150
Sukamara
2.
Arut
250
190
4
100
Kobar
3.
Lamandau
300
250
6
150
Lamandau
4.
Kumai
175
100
6
250
Kobar
5.
Seruyan
350
300
5
250
Seruyan
6.
Mentaya
400
270
6
350
Kotim
7.
Katingan
620
520
6
250
Katingan
8.
Kahayan
526
500
7
450
P.Raya,
Gumas,
P. Pisau
9.
Kapuas
600
420
6
450
Kapuas
10.
Barito
900
720
8
500
Barut, Barsel, Bartim, Mura
11.
Sebangau
180
150
5
100
P. Pisau




Figure 1.1. Map of River Basin in Central Kalimantan Province

Barito River 900 km in length and average width of 500 m across the two provinces of Central Kalimantan and South Kalimantan province so that its management requires coordination of both provinces. Barito River plays an important role in enhancing the economic development of communities, especially communities along the river channel.The problem faced by the Barito river today include:1. Large sedimentation;2. Fluctuations in a large water surface elevation during the wet season and dry season;3. During flood season, but hajan tend to occur in a relatively short time the water will recede;4. During the dry season the river water receded and drought;5. Reduced water quality due to mining contaminated chemicals in the body and along the river and sea water intrusion;6. Damage to watersheds from logging and other activities.

           
Based on the identification of the Coordination Team for Administrative Policies and Maintenance River watershed in 1999 categorized the Barito river river kristis necessitating the handling of priority 1. Through the Public Works Department and the Central Kalimantan province Central Kalimantan River Region II has made some efforts towards the Barito river protection and protection from the destructive force of the Barito river water to the surrounding environment. Given the breadth of the handling area and the lack of coordination among the owners of interests in the region up to now still have not seen the most out of handling these efforts are ultimately intended to improve the welfare of the community.


RIVER MANAGEMENT AGENCY

            
In Law No. 7 of 2004 on Water Resources and its derivatives such as regulation PP No. 42 year 2008 on Water Resources Management and Presidential Decree No. 12 year 2008 regarding the Board of Water Resources, Watershed is defined in detail and then become part of the watershed Wilyah River (WAS) the territorial integrity of water resource management in one or more watersheds and / or small islands covering an area of less than or equal to 2,000 km2. The law of water resources and more derivatives regulation governing the conservation, development, utilization / utilization, distribution and control of water resources and institutional water resources. Center their attention more to the arrangement of water in rivers and water bodies (instream & water bodies), including the conservation of water around water sources, but less set component DAS or Area River such as the behavior and activities of people and other living beings interacting in the River watershed or region, or the dynamics of land use. Similarly to the institutional aspects, the emphasis only on water resource management organization, although its coordinative from national to district / city and across sectors.
            
Through the Presidential Regulation No. 12 of 2008 mandated for the shape of the National Water Resources Board in charge of coordinating the management of water resources at national level (art. 2), the Provincial Resource Council has duty to assist the governor in coordinating the management of water resources (Article 9 and 10) and District Water Resources Council which has the task to assist the regent / mayor in the management of water resources (Articles 13 and 14). Furthermore, through the Regulation of the Minister of Public Works Number: 04/PRT/M/2008 formed Resource Management Coordination Team or TKPSDA River Region, which is coordinating the management of water resources in the river area.
            
In some developed countries the establishment of bodies that manage a particular area of the river required a long process in order to obtain a correct pattern. Japan through the Japan Water Agency (Jwa) a special agency that manages several river systems that can terkoodinir well. The agency is making the basic plan for the development of water resources of each river system in which the plan must receive approval from the cabinet. Rhine River is the longest river in continental Europe where the river is crossed several countries including the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Luxemburg, France and Belgium. The management of this river as well as through a special commission whose members consist of some countries that are crossing the Rhine, the commission known as the International Commission for the Protection the Rhine (ICPR). The Commission was originally (1950) was formed to handle the high degree to which pollution in these rivers. At this time the river Rhine is a comfortable place, which means ICPR successfully overcome criticality of the Rhine, although this also requires a long process.
            
Until now, the management of rivers in Central Kalimantan is not optimal given the limited variety of sources of support for these activities. Central Kalimantan provincial government through the Governor's letter to the Minister of Settlements and Regional Infrastructure No. 610/057/IV/BAPP April 15, 2003 proposed that no special treatment as the parent project to the Barito river. Central Kalimantan Province Government in 2009 proposed that the specialized agencies was formed to handle the Barito river. With the existence of a special agency that manages the Barito River Region is expected to conflicts of interest that occur in it can be properly coordinated, so that the specialized agencies, can provide a pilot project (pilot project) to another river basin management activities.


CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 1. The concept of river development in Indonesia are still using the method of river development (pure hydraulic) that have not considered the impact of river ecology and development as an important factor to be transformed gradually into the concept of integrated development of eco-hidraulic. This can be done by looking at the experience of river management in some developed countries and that it should be remembered that this process takes long enough.2. Based on the above description of watershed conditions that have Priority I (critical) in Indonesia every year is always increasing, this indicates that watershed management is not maximized.3. At this time of the Barito river is the main river that crosses the two provinces, including in critical condition. Based on this information to the Barito river need intensive treatment by forming a Special Agency Barito River Management Area.4. Basic management of water resources by drafting a Basic Plan / Pattern / Management Plan set by an "authority" that is able to regulate the relevant parties5. WAS Barito to be managed by a Board / container that is able to implement the Basic Plan / Pattern / Management Plan established6. Goalnya: Fluctuations in river discharge is not great, water flow without with friends (garbage, etc.), can be used (quantity, quality and benefits)

REFERENCES 

Maryono, A, 2003, Development and Impact of River Restoration River, Gajah Mada University Press, YogyakartaMaryono, A, 2004, Dealing with Flood, Drought and Environment, Gajah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta.Mulyanto, HR, 2006, River-its functions and properties, Graha Sciences, Hyderabad.-------------, 2008, Regulation of the President of the Republic of Indonesia Number 12 Year 2008 on National Water Resources Council.-------------, 2008, Regulation of the Minister of Public Works No. 04/PRT/M/2008 on the Establishment of the Coordination Containers Water Resources Management at the Provincial level, District, and the River Region.-------------, 2008, article in Kompas Daily, published on 1 December 2008.-------------, 2008, the Regional Management Framework for Rivers in Indonesia.-------------, 2009, Data On Public Works Department of Central Kalimantan Province. Data in the Public Works Department of Central Kalimantan Province.
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Presented in XXVI Annual Scientific Meeting HATHI in Banjarmasin, October 25, 2009, by:
Ben Brahim S. BAHAT 

[1]Jarot WIDYOKO 
[2]FREE VYNOU 
[3]Fery Moun Hepy [4] 
------- -------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------
[1] Head of the Public Works Department of Central Kalimantan Province. 
[2] Head of the Office of Water Resources of Central Kalimantan Province. 
[3] Section Head of Technical Planning Division Public Works Water Resources of Central Kalimantan Province. 
[4] Executive Staff at the Office of Central Kalimantan Province / BWS


source : http://freevynou.blogspot.com/2010/03/pengelolaan-wilayah-sungai-barito.html
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