Minggu, 16 Januari 2011

Central Kalimantan

For centuries Central Kalimantan was under the rule of Banjarmasin which had been an Islam Sultanate since 17th century.

The Banjarmasin of that time was developed with the government structure, complete with the legislation which applied to the entire Sultanate. The rulers of Banjamrsin were, therefore, very powerful on the island of Borneo, while the original inhabitants of Kalimantan (Borneo), the 'Dayaks', lived in small communities in rural areas of the island.
In 18th century, between the years 1841 and 1848, a Dutch Geologist,by the name of Schwaner, was involved in the exploration and mapping of the Central Kalimantan region, and travelled along the Barito, Kahayan, Kapuas, and Katingan Rivers. At the same time, he also collected data on the locations of the villages and small communities of the 'Dayaks' along the rivers.
To express their gratitude to the Geologist, the mountain range that separates Central Kalimantan and West Kalimantan was then named after him, "Schwaner Range".
Some time later, between 1880 and 1890, for political and economic reasons, the Dutch Colonials built five canals which link the Kapuas, Barito, and Kahayan Rivers. The purpose of this was to speed up the communications of the area as well as river transportation from rural areas to the terminal at the South-Eastern area of the island.
At the end of the 19th century, Central Kalimantan, according to the Dutch Colonials, was included in the residence of South Kalimantan. At that time, South Kalimantan consisted of the Afdeeling Kapuas Barito (Dayak Besar) and the Swapraja which is called the Sultanate of Kotawaringin. The division of the smaller areas was based on the pattern of the rivers which flow through Central Kalimantan. This land division is possible because the villages are usually located on the banks of the rivers which divide Central Kalimantan.
In carrying out governmental duties at the lower level they use the traditional governmental systems.
Based on the system mentioned above, the Dutch used the traditional local leader to carry out the law, especially the laws which are related to money in the villages, such as taxes. The Dutch also used people as free labor or slaves, called Rodi, for the benefit of the Dutch, for example, the making roads, tunnels etc.
In every river system and particular villages, there were a few Demang (Kepala Adat). The job of the Demang was to lead several kampoongs along the river and region which was the responsibility of that Demang, This region is called Kademangan. Besides the Demang, who was responsible for those Kampoongs, there was a Kampoong chief, called Pambakal, who was elected by the people. He had important duties and a great responsibility. His main job was to delegate the tasks ordered, or forced by the colonials, to the people
After the Dutch left the area, the position was replaced by the Japanese. In this period, Kalimantan became a province, called the Borneo Minseibu with a governor named Cookan. The capital was Banjarmasin.
Central Kalimantan was a part of the larger province of Kalimantan. The division of the government was not changed more than that of the previous one. However, the top rank down to the sub-district leadership of government, were governed directly by the Japanese.
In 1945 the Japanese Occupation was ended by the arrival of the Allies (Australia) in Central Kalimantan. They wanted to remove the weapons from the Japanese troops. At the same time the NICA troops were also on their way.
The last Japanese troops in Central Kalimantan were caught by the Allies on September 27, 1945. They were sent back to Japan from Kumai and Banjarmasin. . Automatically, the regions left by Japanese were controlled by the local people, and directly under the Republic of Indonesia, which was proclaimed on 17 August 1945.
The largest problem in Central Kalimantan at that time, was its size and the difficulties in communication. The prime reason is the equipment which is being used is very simple and traditional.
After Indonesia proclaimed its independence in 1945, the carrying out of the Government in Central Kalimantan was still controlled from Banjarmasin, but gradually there came the inspiration and ideas of the people to establish a separate province as an autonomous Region.
The inspiration and ideas were based on the fact that most of the economy and trade development in this region was supported by crops and natural resources of the region which were primarily transported using the rivers.
After some great effort and hard lobbying, Central Kalimantan was officially declared by the first President of Republic of Indonesia, Prof. Ir. Soekarno, on 23 May, 1957, to be an autonomous province in Indonesia with 'Pahandut' at the confluence of the Rungon and Kahayan Rivers, as the capital city.
The name 'Pahandut' was later changed to 'Palangkaraya' which means 'Sacred Place', Honorable and Great; with Tjilik Riwut as the first-governor .

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Palangkaraya is the province capital of Central Kalimantan and situated in the upstream region of the Kahayan river In the local Dayak language, Palangkaraya means a holy container. Palangkaraya can easily be reached from Jakarta, Banjarmasin, Samarinda, Balikpapan and other points of the island by air. Nowadays, the town has become the center of government, trade and education of the province. The Regional Museum of Palangkaraya contains a collection of historical and cultural interest from all over Central Kalimantan. The Nature Reserve of Tangkiling lies 34 kilometers north of Palangkaraya. Small rivers flow through the reserve.

Kualakapuas is the capital of the Kapuas regency, south of Palangkaraya, on the Kapuas river 40 kilometers from Banjarmasin. A well-known tourism attraction is Telo Island, a fishing village and port. It is a pleasant site for recreation. For the adventurer, white water rafters and nature lovers, there is Gohong Rawai, known for its beautiful and challenging rapids. The gold mines of Teweh and Batu Api, Rungan district, are also interesting sites to be visited. In this region, gold mining is a major source of livelihood for the people, who pan for the valuable metal using the old traditional method. Gold mines are found in many places in Central Kalimantan.

Kotawaringin Timur
Sampit town, on the Sampit river and the capital of Sampit regency, is known as the biggest timber port in Kalimantan as well as in Indonesia. Here can be found many sawmills which proces the timber for export. One can find many interesting tourism attractions in Sampit. Pandaran Beach is a park on the seaside at the mouth of the Sampit river. It is quite unique. One sees to one's north the river emptying its water into the sea. To the south is the wide expanse of the Java Sea. The Orchid Park of Pembuangan Hulu is a natural forest in which a number of rare and beautiful orchid varieties grow. Hunters can engage in their favorite pastime at the Serayan river which borders on the hunting park of Kotawaringin Barat.

Kotawaringin Barat
Pangkalanbun is the capital of the Kotawaringin Barat regency, in the western part of Central Kalimantan. It is busy lisle town. In this town, the old Palace of Pangkalanbun now 200 years old, can still be seen. Made of ulin [iron-wood), it is the only Banjar royal legacy found in Central Kalimantan.
The Mosque of Kyai Gede is the oldest mosque, being more than 300 years old, found in Kotawaringin district. The Tanjung Puting National Park is a very well- known nature and wildlife reserve for lowland and swamp forests, inhabited by orang titans, owaowa, bekantan and other primates. One can visit the Orang Utan Rehabilitation Centre which is supported by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF).

Barito Selatan
It is tourism object, which located in Trinsing village, 18 kilometers from Muara Teweh is a water tourism that unify with 'Balai Benih Ikan' (Fish Seed Hall). Today, this dam become fishing arena and many applied as place of recreation of adolescent Muara Teweh.

Barito Utara
This tourism object is interesting for they venturesome, it caused alongside of Riam side to present experiencing forest natural beauty, Onkong (small Riam) and the waterfall. Besides that, this Riam is not as dangerous as Riam Hatas and the other Riam in upriver Barito River.

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